There in identification • Limited media coverage. • Low

 There are
many technical reasons behind these crimes. Some technical reasons behind cyber
crimes are as follows:

 

•     
Lack
of reporting and standards

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•     
Difficulty
in identification

•     
Limited
media coverage.

•     
Low
marginal cost of online activity due to global 
reach.

•     
A
very few rate of Official investigation and criminal prosecution

•     
Capability
of computer to store data in comparatively small space.

•     
Easy
to access

•     
Complexities
in oparetiing systems code

•     
Lake
of evidence

•     
Loopholes
in systems

•     
Negligence

•     
Confidential
information in online

 

The threats of cybercrime to the
network security are not only for several organizations, but can be observed
all over the world in

different countries.

 

Relative risk of running computer
networks around the worlds are shown bellow:

Name of the Country

            
Parcentages(%)

Chile

                     
61%

China

                     
45%

South Koria

                     
35%

US

                       
7%

Germany

                       
7%

Japan

                       
6%

UK

                       
6%

Sweden

                        4%

Narway

                       
3%

 

 

Its very alarming for our country also…Now, its
urgent to prevent cyber crime.So we all should try to use proper network
security.

Some  common types of

Information Security Network
Protection( ISNP) packages

are as follows:

1.BlackIce

2.Conseal PC

3.Tiny

4.Protect X

5.Sygate Firewall

6.Win Route Pro

7.Zone Alarm

8.At Guard

9.Esafe Desktop

10.Hack tracer

10.Internet

Firewall 2000

 

 

Network securities are very essential to prevent
cyber crime due to many benefits  such as:

1.Reduces unauthorized lawless
individuals from accessing your

network.

2.Gives transparent & legal
access to Internet-enabled users.

3.Provides the surity that
sensitive data & informations is transferred safely by the

public network.

4.Provide your managers to search
and fix security

problems.

5.Gives a effective system of
warning alarms

attempt to access your network.

 

Besides Network securities we can also reduce cyber
crimes by taking some proper steps such as:

1. Proper Investigation

2. Strong Legislation

3. Penalties

4. Increasing Awareness

5. Intelligent activities

 

 We have known  about cybercrime as well as its types,
impact, technical reasons by previous discussion.

 

But it is also very important to
know about the behavior or psychology of criminals behind cyber crime. Because
who involves in  this

behaviour have also become a part
of our  society. But there is a
difference between computer criminals and

non-computer criminals moral
choice

and exploitive or manipulative
behaviors. Self-reported computer criminals

were always higher on
manipulative behaviors but

on moral choice internal and
moral choice social,they were lower.

 

A research had done by an
organization with 77 participants from a mid western university

Enrolled in the college of
technology .Among these participants 87%

were male and 13% were

female(Table-1) .The mean age was
taken 21years.Mainly ,participants

are the representative of the
largest population of interested individuals of  17–30 years age who make up the majority of
those individuals engaged in criminal behavior.

 

Table-1:

 

Participants

Percentage
 

Gender

 

Male

86.8%

Female

13.2%

Age

 

18–20

51.4
(35)

21–23

39.7

24-27

7.4

27-older

1.5

Ethnicity

 

white

85.3%

Asian
American

8.5%

African
American

1.5%

Indian

1.5%

Asian

1.5%

Asian(Indian)

1.5%

Major

 

Comp.
Tech

91.2%

Comp.
Graphics

1.5%

Comp.
Science

1.5%

Others

5.9%

 

 

 

It have been also found by this
research that they had engaged in these following activities such as:

 

1.trying to guess passwords.

2.trying to use other’s password
without authorization.

3.creating or using  a virus.

4 Obtaining a device for  free phone calls.

5. Trying to get someone’s credit card data without

authorization.

6.. Observing at others’ files without
authorization.

7.Modifying or changing others’ files without
authorization.

 

Actually, there are some reason behind these behavior
such as

•     
Official
investigation and criminal prosecution is rare.

•     
Catching
by law and enforcement agency is less effective and more expensive.

•     
Passion
of youngsters

•      For
the sake of recognition.

•      Desire
of making quick money

•       New opportunity to do legal acts using
technical architecture

•     
Create
new form of Crimes

•     
Accessibility
of victims

 

 

 

  Websites
became a major part of our life for various purposes. But its very alarming
that, websites may be hacked by hackers.Website
hacking has became a great threat for businesses
developing an online presence.

Heckers are stealing secret
data,informations, taking control ,even shutting down any website. the popularity of Web site hacking is mystifying. Actually, Hacking  of a Web site can affect the credibility and
reputation of the organization as a whole. But among many types of cyber crimes
, Why do hackers give effort to deface a Web site? There are some reasons
behind this.Hackers can hack websites in many ways such as:

 

1.DDOs
Attack(Distributed Denial of Service Attack): Make  unavailable a website t the users.

2. Remote code
execution attacts:Make secuirity weak either the server side or client side 

3.Cross site
request forgery attacks:Hackers send to users a forged HTTP request to collect
their cookie information of users while they are logged into a session or
account.

4.Symlinking-An
insider attack: when a hacker positions the symlink Which is a special file
that “points to” a hard link on a mounted file system, the user or application
that access the endpoint thinks that they are accessing the correct file but
they’re really not.

5.DNS Cache
Poisoning: DNS Cache Poisoning attatched old cache data, hackers can identify
vulnerabilities in a domain name system thats allow to form traffic from legit
servers to a fake website .

6.ClickJacking
Attacks( UI Redress Attack): to
trace a user into clicking the top layer without them knowing by using multiple
opaque layers.

7.Brocken
Authentication and session management attacks:Passwords, key management,
session IDs, cookies are consists in authentication systems that can allow a
hacker to access the whole information from any website.

8.XSS attack:
also known as cross site scripting attacts : It can occur when an application,
file packet, url “get request” is sent to any web browser window and bypassing
the validation process, for example, user may see a page asking for their
credit card info or any other private informations. 

9.Injection Attacks: it happens when
there are flaws in the SQL Database, SQL libraries or the operating system by
itself.users might open the files
with hidden commands that’s make an opportunities to  hackers to get unauthorized access to
secret informations as well as data as like credit card number ,social security
numbersor other financial data.

 

A hacker can
exploit vulnerabilities by  applying  multiple and various  techniques to hack a Web

Site.So some
techniques  must be applied  to To prevent website hacking as well as keep
any website safe.

Some
techniques are as follows:

 

1. Keep software up to date
regularly.

2. Toughen up  access control.

3.Ensure OS
level protection

4.Use  HTTP attack protection

5. Use Web
server resources protection

6. Use
standard Transact SQL.

7. Give strong
passwords 

8. Use HTTPS protocol to provide security over the
Internet.

9Use Website
security tools such as Netsparker, OpenVAS, SecurityHeaders.io Xenotix XSS Exploit Framework  etc.

10. Tighten network security.

11.  Install
a web application firewall.

12.
Hide admin pages.

13.
Limit file uploads.

14.
Use SSL.

15.
Back-up frequently.

 

 

Conclusion: We
can not think our daily life without compter as well as internet. The
advantages of internet and computer can not be described in one word. But they
have also some demerits as like cyber crimes.Its also became a part of our
life. Criminals and victims both are the part of our society.Now, the rate of
various types of cyber crimes increases rapidly. It must be reduced by keeping
proper steps that’s are already discussed in this paper for keeping safe our
personal and private informations,ensure the security of all types of websites and
making our  society clean & peaceful.