The located in the carotid sinus and the aortic

The circulatory system is vital and an
essential part of the human anatomy and physiology. It provides and maintains
homeostasis to the whole life system of human body existent (EHow.media. 2010). Imagine a car
engine with all its complexity and part, and we just focus on one main and
essential  part of the car system which
makes it as a car we all know about and that is the engine or as we might
alternatively call it the “heart of the vehicle” the piston inside the engine
move as combustion occurred as the result of mixing of air and fuel ignited by
spark plug in the chamber and a small explosion in turn push the piston upward
by force and this resulted in the rotation and transferring of power to the
crank shaft and this crank shaft, turn the car wheel so that the car be able to
move and serve it purpose as a transportation machine for human use. By this analogy
we can see why it is called the “heart of the vehicle”, this mechanism and its
ability to achieve its purpose are identical to the human heart and its system
example the oxygen sensor that monitor the mixture of air and fuel in
correlation to engine output, the oxygen sensor system existed to maintain
power output and at the same time to prevent damage to the engine which this
oxygen sensor act the same way as the baroreceptor located in the carotid sinus
and the aortic arch which responded to the amount pressure change in the
arterial wall in the human anatomy and physiology where if prolong high
pressure can damage the arterial wall, and disrupt the circulation and
ultimately endanger the heart, lungs, brain, kidney and nearly every part of
the body (Klabunde, R.E.2016). The concepts are amazingly similar and
it is magnificently engineered and at the same time, it is fascinating to learn
and be able to understand such an existent and the purpose of its creation.

Physical activity cannot be separated from
human life the cardiovascular system is relatively connected to the physical
activity. Fatigue is an appearance respond to the duration of physical activity
and this implementation of physical activity is both directly and naturally the
body will respond to the quality and quantity of physical activity which is
undertaken. Such a response is part of human body demand to meet the
nutritional need in an effort to compensate the physical activity process and
at the same time to maintain the body condition in order to achieve
equilibrium, it is also called the optimum physiological response (Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall.2017).
The change in frequency of physical activity is base upon the pre and post
physical activity and this can be apparent depending on the stat of the
individual optimum physical condition. The physiological responses are
proportional to the physical activity and the responses are different from one
individual to another individual. The physiological response which is observed
and showed the difference which is due to the body condition during physical
activity which the body are prepared by doing routine exercise or body
condition were trained or not trained. And within this essay, we will discuss
the finding and present the reason for the difference between a trained
athletes and a non-trained or non-athlete in taekwondo base on its anatomy and
physiology of the cardiovascular system.

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A simple observation can be seen by just
the blood pressure and heart rate check of pre and post test from 2 different
people with a background of athlete and non-athlete. The heart rate and blood
pressure are used to see the physiological response of the physical activity.
It is also to be clear that the returned to normal physiological responses are
also showing the ability of the body fulfilling the optimum physical
condition.  The reading of an untrained
person shows that blood pressure is pre-activity is 127/75 while 158/62
(systole/diastole) for post activity and the time required for the untrained
person to restore or recover his blood pressure to normal value is 7 minutes.
On the other hand, the trained person reading show that his blood pressure is
for the pre-activity is 119/63 (systole/diastole) and post activity shows the
blood pressure of 141/68 and the time required for the trained person to
restore or recovered his blood pressure to normal value is 4 minutes. As we all
know that blood pressure is a pressure that existed when the heart contract and
relaxed in a cycle and this is called as the systole and diastole pressure.
Base on the statement above about the activity which is performed by the
trained and untrained person and there the physiological effect of the blood
pressure we can understand that there is a totally different on pressure existed
in both person. The heart as a pump has to pull out a stimulus rhythmically.
Under the ordinary circumstance, the heart rhythm is from the pacemaker of the
heart the sinoatrial node (SA node) located in the right atrium. The SA node is
responsible for the whole heart contraction function (it acts like a car engine
Spark Plug). And there are several factors which can affect the rhythm of the
SA node including the drop in pressure, stimulation of increasing temperature
and other (Guyton and Hall, 2006).

The increases in blood pressure mainly
the systole pressure during the post activity is caused by the hormone
epinephrine during a physical activity. This causes the strengthening of the
heart muscle contraction and also the effect of the blood vessels widening
(dilation), but the dilation does depend widely upon the person condition. If a
person has arteriosclerosis the effect of epinephrine is limited on the
dilation of the blood vessels, and the rises of blood pressure can occur.   Also, the sweat that is produced is also an
effect on the blood plasma and this decreases the volume of blood and in turn,
blood pressure does not rise too excessively. The trained person has lower
blood pressure are also related to a stronger heart muscle and valves which are
functioning more effective due to his heart has been accustomed to physical
activity in taekwondo. His ability to returned to normal blood pressure quicker
compared to the untrained person is because of the trained person blood vessels
has a more elastic vessel wall and thus a trained person has a higher
elasticity blood vessels than an untrained person.

The blood pressure in relation to the
heartbeat is played a vital role in physical activity and the readiness and the
condition of the body and the system of the person especially the
cardiovascular system. We have to remember that all is related to maintaining a
balance of haemostasis (moronacity.health.journal.2010).
The cardiac output is the sum of the stroke volume and heartbeat and from this
equation, we acquire the total volume of blood pump by the heart per
minute.  And as we can see the number of
heartbeats play an important role in producing the total cardiac output. It can
easily put as “physical activity increase heart rate and increase stroke volume,
and in turn, increase the cardiac output” (Fox.1993
Soekarman.1986 in Akmarawita. 2012). From what we can understand and from
test result of blood pressure and heart rate during resting stage that we
observe from two sample subject, AS1 and AS2 (which has an athletics lifestyle)
both are senior taekwondo student and from two other different subject, NS1 and
NS2 (no athletic lifestyle background) both which are from non-physically
active individual, where it is found that the senior taekwondo student has a
lower number of heartbeat compare to the non-physically active person. The data
show that AS1 register 60 heartbeat/min and AS2 register 69 heartbeat/min while
for NS1 register 82 beats/min and NS2 86 beat/min. We can conclude from the
result of the test subject of the 2 group of people show that a physically
active person has a lower heartbeat due to having a difference in anatomical
structure of the heart muscle and the explanation for this is that these group
of people has a more elastic and thicker muscle structure and this more
effective heart structure which allows the heart to relax and give stronger
contraction during each cardiac cycle, and this is made possible due to that
they have been trained to perform physical activity routinely. That the reason
why athlete of physically active person has a lower heart rate for pre and post
physical activity is due to the stronger and more optimize amount of blood that
are able to be contracted from the ventricle during it relaxing stage in the
cardiac cycle and because of this stronger and more effective amount of blood
pump toward the lungs or the head and to the rest of the body causes the
baroreceptor to receive the amount of stretch within the carotid sinus and the
aorta arch and this sends the signal to the cardio regulatory centre in medulla
oblongata which in turn interpreted the data it receives and gives the signal
of parasympathetic input to the sinoatrial node (SA node) to lower the amount
of heart beat. So in short due to the larger cardiac output of a physically
active person that causes more stretch on the baroreceptor, and this causes the
brain to increase the parasympathetic input and reduce the sympathetic input of
the autonomic nervous system and causes the SA node to reduce the heartbeat and
balance out the homeostasis within the system. This is the reason why the
athlete or physically active person has a lower resting heartbeat (can even
reach as low as 40 beats/min) compare to normal or non-physically active
person.

The heart dedicatedly powered the entire
circulatory system that enables the transportation of nutrient, oxygen,
hormones, immune system and waste that really important to the survival of the
body to function and the heart has only one concern and that is maintaining
pressure (The heart/under
pressure/patreon.com.2015) With a system that work in coordination with not
just a single organ but with all the other organ like the lung that responsible
of the respiratory system to which another essential part that works in
conjunction with the cardiovascular system that works in a bulk flow and the
autonomic nervous system which consist of sympathetic and parasympathetic
respond that play vital role in everyday respond either in active mode of
condition example sport or a adrenaline rush situation to the relaxing and
smooth and calm activity, for example, reading a book or just having a nice
evening meal with your love one to the master gland that secretes hormone to
other organ and while this response is slower compare to the fast respond from
the receptor or the autonomic nervous system are working together to maintain
haemostasis of the body. It is simply an amazing system and the unsung hero
that often goes unnoticed considering all the difference in a scenario of
physical activity in which the body needs in order to regulate and maintain the
blood pressure and blood flow, it is simply amazing and impressive on how the
cardiovascular system able to accomplish all of that without even the need to
think about it.