Review: used for hearing impairments, which is mainly for

 

Review: Advances in the Spoken-Language Development of Deaf and
Hard-of-Hearing Children

Hayley J.
Loney

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University of
Minnesota Duluth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

“A communication
disorder is an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and
comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbol systems. A
communication disorder may be evident in the processes of hearing, language,
and/or speech (ASHA)”.  I decided to
focus on a specific section of a book published from a journal of Deaf Studies
and Deaf Education, this is because the major I am pursuing is Communication
Sciences and Disorders. This undergraduate degree allows you to move on to
higher education in a Masters of Speech Language Pathology or Audiology.
Audiology is a branch of study I am looking into pursuing prior to my undergrad,
this is why I have decided to review a published book revolved around this
profession. Cochlear Implantation is a huge aspect to the Audiology world; they
are used for hearing impairments, which is mainly for people that have impaired
auditory sensitivity to physiological auditory system. Having said that this
limits the development, comprehension, production or maintenance of speech and
language development in youth. Being deaf or having a hearing impairment can
affect a child’s oral communication skills and having a cochlear implant
demonstrates benefits to help with these skills as well as hearing, language
and speech and overall development of a person. This book presents information
on the new world evolving for deaf and hard-of-hearing children and the
improved expectations for their acquisition of spoken language. With my
knowledge regarding cochlear implants and communication disorders this book is
very interesting and rewarding to read, it discusses the main factors and
complications or cochlear implants in the world of audiology.

Evaluation Information

Title: Advances in
the Spoken-Language Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

Authors: Patricia Elizabeth Spencer, Marc
Marschark

Publisher: Oxford University Press Year
Published: Sept 1,
2005

The authors of “Advances in
the Spoken-Language Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children” have written this book for two
purposes.  Their aim is to be informative
to students and teachers about the success of children as they develop and how
hearing impairments can affect ones social and emotional development in terms
of communication skills. This book has a wide scope; it covers a lot of
information that is important to improve a child’s reading and communication
skills.  The topics range from different
studies and how they correlate with student achievement all the way to the
assessment of oral communication and literacy skills which is something we
cover in early childhood studies and special education in the support and
emotional development of a human being. In order to give a summary I will
organize each sub heading with a brief overview of each therefore you will have
a good idea of all the concepts within the book.

Summary
and Overview of Author’s Opinions/ Usefulness

This book is what reviews that available evidence
concerning the effects of cochlear implantation on the development of reading
skills and academic achievement among deaf children. It also goes through ones
working memory capacity in deaf children with cochlear implants. It gives
empirical study evidence that supports theoretical and philosophical positions.
The studies initiated are for various purposes that contradict assumptions
about the effect of implants, cued speech and audiological advancements on a
deaf child’s academic achievement. Summaries of some of the investigations are
as follows: a score is derived for language growth of cochlear implant users to
the growth rate that is expected for ones age. There is a clear gap between
normal hearing children and ones with hearing losses and as well a gap for
their social and emotional well being. This is because, tests show that a child
must actually learn at a rate faster than that of normal hearing children.
Overall, end results show that the use of cochlear implants increase ones
language ability. The tests got compared from examinations over years and they
did an evaluation to see the difference between the implant group and the non-implant
and the results varied. One other investigation that was outlined in this book
was that enhanced phonemic awareness and phonological processing skills would
result in better reading abilities among children with peers that don’t have an
implant. Some evidence that the authors portrayed very well and that I found a
particular interest in is the main influence that cochlear implants have on a
developing childs ability to perceive speech and language and how these
implants helped these children. The author quoted directly: “The
best-documented effect of cochlear implantation on profoundly deaf children is
a marked increase in their speech perception ability (Spencer, Marschark pg.
245)”. Overall, this book made a lot of connections with reading skills and
relations of language with tests that proved the correlation difference between
hearings impaired children vs. non-hearing impaired.

Evaluating
Conclusions/ Problems

Based
off of the review of this published book on hearing impairments correlated with
achievement in academics and spoken language development it is based off of
proof of a huge aspect of early childhood and that is language development.
There were studies revolving around theoretical analysis of cochlear implants
from those who work in a clinical practice of audiology or deaf studies.  The issues it raised regarding a child with
hearing impairments were clearly stated and dealt with a lot in the field of
study and practice I am studying (Clinical Speech-Language-Pathology/ Audiology).
The information that the book gave was adequately presented because of all of
the investigations and tests that were developed and that were done with
children that either had cochlear implants or did not, and it provided how all
aspects of language syntactically, phonetically, receptively or expressively
are affected. However, it lacked and omitted information and proof regarding
whether a child lacks verbal communication skills or reading and language
comprehension or just has problems with certain aspect of speech and language
perception. I would have wanted to learn more about the actual “skills” this
entailed in depth. The wide scope the book gave completely encompassed the
topic of Audiology because in this scope of practice the central focus of the
profession is concerned with all auditory impairments and their relationship to
disorders of communication. Audiologists identify, assess, diagnose, and treat
individuals with impairment of either peripheral or central auditory and/or
vestibular function, and strive to prevent such impairments (ASHA, 2016).  Having said that, this book completely
encompasses this profession and gives a lot of support and knowledge regarding
it. The book persuasively demonstrates the idea and topic it developed, and
addressed my main point of interest which is the audience can clearly
understand what the point is and it gives a lot of information to convince the
reader to take their position on the issue and general topic it is expressing.
Through the authors writing about the topic it would make a difference in
someone’s life after reading it, because it would influence someone to take a
certain action and come to realization about children around them that have
hearing impairments This is a book that would make an adult audience with
children of their own become informed and aware of the issues children with
cochlear implants truly face. Having said that, the audience it is intended for
is very clear and is suitable because it provides not only clear information
based off of the clinical practice of audiology but to help those who may have
children or people around them whether it is students, friends, etc. become
informed about the issues raised with ones academic achievement.

Final Thoughts/ Recommendations

This book is very useful, and the author did a great job
at informing and convincing people about the efforts to
help deaf children develop spoken language through which they could have full
access to the hearing world. Being a Communication Sciences and Disorders major, it was extremely eye
opening to read. I feel like I have gained a lot more knowledge about the scope
of practice I will be diving into later on down the road and it makes me very
excited. Given my field of study, I would highly suggest this book published by
Oxford about Deaf Studies to be used as a tool and a guide for students and or
faculty. This book highlights many different topics that go above and beyond in
a beneficial way; it allows you to see what really goes on in the Audiology and
deaf-studies world and what is behind ones development with language and social
ties. What I mean by this is the big picture is how audiology can be used to
influence a child’s life that is hard of hearing. For example, the author made a
clear point that there are innovative testing
procedures for hearing, in which allow for early identification of loss that
leads to intervention services during the first weeks and months of life in
which can help children improve the skills they need to develop as a human
being in language and speech acquisition. Programmable hearing aids are out
there and discussed in the book, they allow more children to make use of
residual hearing abilities.

Having said that, reading this book you get a taste of
what it is really all about first hand to be in the audiology world and dealing
with children that have hard-of-hearing and in this
book they present the latest information on both the new world evolving for
deaf and hard-of-hearing children and the improved expectations for their
acquisition of spoken language and what can be done to help them with all of the tests, investigations
and real life examples it provides.

In conclusion, the author did a great job on including
several variables that connect the foundational role in the development of
speech and language skills with cochlear implants. These certain findings
correlate with memory processing (encoding) and serial scanning of our
short-term memory and how atypical they are in deaf children. Overall, this book represented that barriers to deaf children’s
full participation in the world around them will continue to be overcome.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. E. (2006). Advances
in the spoken language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children.
Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.