parathyroid of parathyroid embryonic development.[2] primary hyperparathyroidism is 3

parathyroid adenoma is one of the most common causes of primary hyperparathyroidism.1 The occurrence of parathyroid adenomas outside the parathyroid gland is usually explained by their embryonic development. Therefore, the abnormal parathyroid gland can occur in any part of the pathway of parathyroid embryonic development.2

primary hyperparathyroidism is 3 times more common in women
and occurs at an average age of 60 years.3 The incidence and prevalence primary hyperparathyroidism are
about 1/1000 and 3/1000 in the normal population respectively. 3 Primary hyperparathyroidism is due to single adenoma
(85-85%), hyperplasia (10-20%), carcinoma (1%), and up to 20% of the
parathyroid glands may be outside of the anatomical location. 4The most common site of the ectopic parathyroid gland
is in the mediastinum.2 clinical manifestation in patients with primary
hyperparathyroidism depending on serum calcium levels,
such as bone pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, polyuria, polydipsia, muscle
cramp, and constipation.Benign tumors are not detectable in the routine
physical examination and are diagnosed based on laboratory findings and
imaging.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

4. After neck exploration, ectopic tumors and several other reasons
such as disease recurrence or surgical site residue can be responsible for
persistent hyperparathyroidisms.Due to these challenges, Anatomical studies are
recommended before re-surgery. In managing parathyroid adenoma recurrence after previous surgery, the
careful examination of previous imaging, operational and pathology notes, ultrasound and 99mTc-Sestamibi scan are required.

If the
location of the tumor remains uncertain, cross-sectional imaging(eg, CT or MRI)
should be taken.2 The sensitivity of ultrasonography and Tc-99m sestamibi scan in the discovery of adenoma is 60-90% and70-80%
respectively. The highest sensitivity test for localization of parathyroid
tumors is 99m sestamibi scan with Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography(SPECT) about 87%.5