p.p1 Chimera can be presented in multiple forms which

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Abstract: 

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The composition of cells from different zygotes in a single organism is called a Chimera. A term originated from greek mythology that means an animal with three different parts. People think chimera is rare because it is not easily detectable. Chimera can occur both naturally and artificially. Natural chimera occurs in three forms; FMC, Mosaic Chimerism, and Tetragemtic Chimerism. Artificial chimerism occurs through scientific and medical interventions. Chimera can be presented in multiple forms which are; Blood chimera, Hermaphroditism chimera, heterochromial chimera , and abnormal skin pigmentation chimera. Most chimera will live their entire life without the knowledge of their chimeric status. As a result, most chimeras will remain unidentified to science. 

 

Introduction:

 In biology, chimera is an animal that is composed of two genetically distinct types of cells is called, a chimera 1. The term chimera originated from Greek mythology, an animal that was made up of three different parts: the body of a lioness, the head of a goat, and the tail of a dragon. In biology, it is the presence of genetically distinct and separately derived types of cells in the composition of a person. This can include possessing both female and male sex organs, red blood cells of different blood types. Chimera is common; however it is unrecognizable. The most common abnormality is hermaphroditism, that is caused by the fusion of a male and a female embryos, abnormal skin pigmentation, and heterochromia iridium. The first documented human chimera was diagnosed in 1953, when the red blood cells of a female donor was found to be a mixture of A and O cells. Genetically, under normal circumstances, AO blood type is impossible. Human blood type is determined by co-dominant alleles, both A and B alleles are dominant over O.  As a result, individuals who have an AO genotype will have an A phenotype.Since the reporting of this case, chimeras have gained wide research interest. Furthermore, the rapid development of novel technologies allowed researchers to identify chimeras more easily. One of these techniques is UCHIME, a program that detects chimeric sequence with two or more segments.2

Literature and Review Discussion:

Natural chimerism has three forms: Fetomaternal Microchimerism (FMC), Mosaic Chimerism, and Tetragametic Chimerism. FMC, the most common type, occurs in one of two ways either during pregnancy or after birth. During pregnancy, cells are transferred from fetus to mother or mother to fetus across the placenta. Studies have shown that fetus cells can survive in the mother’s body. After four years of giving birth, cells can be exchanged between twins inside the uterus4.
In Tetragametic Chimerism two separate eggs are fertilized by two sperms to create fused embryos. The resulting embryo has two sets of DNA from both embryos. A mosaic, is an individual who has some cells harboring XY, whereas others harbor XX5. Natural chimerism can remain unnoticed until the patient represents with a clinical problem that allows for its detection. As for the artificial chimerism, it may occur as a result of medical operations. Such as in the case of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which usually results in artificial chimerism. The cells of the donor and the recipient coexist together in the recipient’s bone marrow.
Chimera can be represented in multiple forms: Blood chimera, Hermaphroditism chimera, heterochromia iridium chimera , and abnormal skin pigmentation chimera. Blood chimera is considered to be rare in humans. It can occur through the transfusion of blood stem cells or zygote fusion. Hermaphroditism chimera happens when the two opposite gender developing embryos diffuse into one embryo in the uterus. Heterochromia iridium chimera, the presence of two different eye colours, and abnormal skin pigmentation are two physical expressions of chimera.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, chimera can occur naturally or artificially. The occurrence of  chimera is undetectable unless the patient undergoes clinical examination or experiences physical abnormalities. Scientists are beginning to pursue the goal of using animals to save human lives through the creation of chimerism. That’s a future we could soon be living in, according to new research by reproductive biologist Pablo Ross. Dr. Ross will remove the gene from pig embryos that makes their pancreas, then injects those embryos with human stem cells IPSCS. Allowing the embryos to develop for 28 days before removing and dissecting them. In an attempt to prove a pig can grow human organs. And because stem cells can be made from an adult human’s skin cells, any organ that grows would exactly match the human genetic source. In a way, this is creating a chimera. Dr. Pablo’s approach created a dilemma. 
Dr. Ross addressed the controversy over this new field of research saying, 
“We’re not trying to make a chimera just because we want to see some kind of monstrous creature. We’re doing this for a biomedical purpose. I don’t consider that we’re playing God or even close to that. We’re just trying to use the technologies that we have developed to improve peoples’ life.””5