INTRODUCTION Davies (2003) cited in Kaoje and Ishiaku, (2017)

INTRODUCTION

1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND

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Flood is an
extreme naturally occurring weather event that results in an overflowing of large amounts of
surface water over land that is not
always inundated Adeoye; Ayanlande; and Babatimehin (2009 Cited in Mmom and
Akpi 2014).  According to Leinster (2009)
flood is an overflow of water that covered the land surfaces that are normally
dry. This includes overflow from water bodies like river, lakes etc.

Floods are
considered to be the worst natural disaster
in the world and are responsible for a third of all natural problems and half of the damages on facilities
around the globe (Mmom and Ayapko, 2014). Alexander;
Viavattene; Faulkner; and Priest (2011) defined flood vulnerability as
“probability of flood occurrences and its potential consequences”. So,
therefore flood vulnerability mapping according to Kaoje and Ishiaku, (2017) is
the presentation or representation of areas that are at risk of flood events on
maps. According to Kaoje (2016) flood vulnerability mapping is very important
for an appropriate urban planning to reduce the likelihood of flood occurrence
and also reduce the consequences of flood disaster when it happen. Flood is the
most common occurring natural disaster that affects humans and their surrounding
environment (Leinster, 2009). This natural disaster is common in Nigeria, it
has been occurring in almost every rainy season (Kaoje and Ishiaku, 2017).

In 2012 about
1.3 million Nigerians were displaced and 431 died from various floods
occurrences and over 30 out of 36 states in Nigeria were affected by the flood
(NEMA, 2012; IRIN, 2012). Flood is no doubt is one of
the major environmental problems affecting the livelihood of an area especially
an urban area in which Yenagoa city and its environs is not in exemption
meaning that Yenagoa is a typical flood prone area in the Niger Delta region. According
to Cinque; Crowe; and Davies (2003) cited in Kaoje
and Ishiaku, (2017) it is understood that flood is a hazard that can be avoided
not only by building dams or constructing more flood defence systems but also
by the use of modern technologies and appropriate urban planning that will provide
accurate information on flood prone areas on a map. Geographic Information
System (GIS) is very important in generating such maps through rigorous spatial
analysis (Eludoyin and Weli, n.d).  According
to Burroughs (1987) cited in Eludoyin and Weli, (n.d) GIS can be defined as a
tool for storing, manipulating and displaying large quantities of geographic
information in a computer. He stressed further that the geographic data which
is stored describes objects from the real world in terms of their position on
the earth with respect to known coordinate system. According to Atkinson (2008)
cited in Kaoje and Ishiaku, (2017) GIS application have gained a wide
acceptability. Mapping has becomes the keystone for flood risk management and
communication in representing spatial relationships between hazard and
vulnerability and resulting risk (Alexander et al 2011).

1.2   PROBLEM STATEMENT