INTERCULTURALtCOMMUNICATIONtCOMPETENCEt Youtcantlearntabouttothertculturetbytactiveltytparticipatingtintit DeveloptCulture-tSpecifictSkills 1tpracticetlistening Languagetandtnontverbaltcommunicationtvarytacrosstculture.focustcloselytontthetotherstandtlistentattentively 2tInterculturaltEmpathyt Imaginativelytplacingtyourselftintothertperson’stculturaltworldttotattemptttotexperiencetwhattheshetistexperiencingt 3tFlexibilityt Thetabilityttotadjusttyourtcommunicationttotfittthetothertpersontandtthetsituation

INTERCULTURALtCOMMUNICATIONtCOMPETENCEt

Definition:tistthetabilityttotcommunicateteffectivelytandtappropriatelytwithtpeopletoftothertcultures.

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·       
Appropriately.tValuedtrules,tnormstandtexpectationstoftthetrelationshiptaretnottviolatedtsignificantly.

·       
Effectively.Valuedtgoalstortrewardst(relativettotcoststandtalternatives)taretaccomplished.

Intinterectiontwithtpeopletfromtforeigntcultures,tatpersontwhotistinterculturallytcompetenttunderstandstthetculture-specifictconceptstoftperception,tthinking,tfeeling,tandtacting.

Origins

tInterculturaltcommunicationtbeganstwhentpeopletfromtdifferenttcultureststartedttotmeetttogethertandtcommunicatetwithteachtother.First,tittwastpromotedtbytmissionaries,merchantstandtdiplomats.Itthastbeentpopulartsincet1950s.ThettermtinterculturaltcommunicationtwastfirsttusedtbytAmericantanthropologisttEdwardtT.Hall,tRuthtbeganttotexplorethowtpeopletfromtdifferenttculturestsuccessfullytcommunicates.Duringtthetpasttdecadestthetgrowthtoftglobalization,immigrationtandtinternationalttourismthastinvolvedtlargetnumbertoftpeopletintinterculturaltinteraction.Thisthastledttotatdesiretandtneedtfortknowledgetregardingthowtpeopletfromtdifferenttcultures,belieftandtreligiontcomettogetherttotworktandtcommunicatetwithteachtother

 

Interculturaltcommunicationtcompetencetcantalsotbetviewedtas:

Ø Thetperson’stunderstandingtofthistowntvalues,tnorms,tethics

Ø Awarenesstandtacceptancetoftthetdifference

Ø Abilityttotadopttthetdifferencet

Sotinterculturaltcompetencetistsometimestalsotcalledt”cross-culturaltcompetence”t(3C)talthoughttheretistattendencyttotusetthetformertfortthetinterculturaltcontacttandtthetlattertfortcomparisontbetweentcultures.

Atperson’stmotivationtfortcommunicatingtwithtpeopletfromtothertculturestmusttbetconsidered.tMotivationtrefersttotthetroottoftatperson’stdesirettotfostertinterculturaltrelationshipstandtcantbetintrinsictortextrinsic.tPuttsimply,tiftatpersontisn’ttmotivatedttotcommunicatetwithtpeopletfromtdifferenttcultures,tthentthetcomponentstoftICCtdiscussedtnexttdon’ttreallytmatter.tIftatpersonthastathealthytcuriositytthattdrivesthimtortherttowardtinterculturaltencounterstintorderttotlearntmoretabouttselftandtothers,tthenttheretistatfoundationtfromtwhichttotbuildtadditionaltcompetence-relevanttattitudestandtskills.tThistintrinsictmotivationtmakestinterculturaltcommunicationtatvoluntary,trewarding,tandtlifelongtlearningtprocess.tMotivationtcantalsotbetextrinsic,tmeaningtthattthetdesiretfortinterculturaltcommunicationtistdriventbytantoutsidetrewardtliketmoney,tpower,tortrecognition.tWhiletbothttypestoftmotivationtcantcontributettotICC,tcontexttmaytfurthertenhancetortimpedetatperson’stmotivationttotcommunicatetacrosstcultures.

KnowledgetsupplementstmotivationtandtistantimportanttparttoftbuildingtICC.tKnowledgetincludestself-tandtother-awareness,tmindfulness,tandtcognitivetflexibility.tListeningttotpeopletwhotaretdifferenttfromtustistatkeytcomponenttoftdevelopingtself-knowledge.tThetmostteffectivetwayttotdeveloptother-knowledgetistbytdirecttandtthoughtfultencounterstwithtothertcultures.tLivingtintatruraltareatmaytlimittyourtabilityttotinteracttwithtatrangetoftcultures,tandtmosttpeopletdotnotttraveltinternationallytregularly.tBecausetoftthis,twetmaythavettotmaketatdeterminedteffortttotinteracttwithtothertculturestortrelytonteducationaltsourcestliketcollegetclasses,tbooks,tortdocumentaries.tLearningtanothertlanguagetistalsotatgoodtwayttotlearntabouttatculture,tbecausetyoutcantthentreadtthetnewstortwatchtmoviestintthetnativetlanguage,twhichtcantoffertinsightstthattaretlosttinttranslation.tIttistimportantttotnotetthoughtthattwetmusttevaluatetthetcredibilitytoftthetsourcetoftourtknowledge,twhethertittistatbook,tperson,tortothertsource.tAlso,tknowledgetoftanothertlanguagetdoestnottautomaticallytequatettotICC.

Basics

Culturestcantbetdifferenttnottonlytbetweentcontinentstortnationstbuttalsotwithintthetsametcompanytandteventwithintthetsametfamily.tThetdifferencestmaytbetethical,tethnic,tgeographical,thistorical,tmoral,tpolitical,tortreligious.

Thetbasictrequirementstfortinterculturaltcompetencetaretempathy,tantunderstandingtoftothertpeople’stbehaviorstandtwaystoftthinking,tandtthetabilityttotexpresstone’stowntwaytoftthinking.tIttistatbalance,tsituativelytadapted,tamongtfourtparts:

Knowledget(abouttothertculturestandtothertpeople’stbehaviors)
Empathyt(understandingtthetfeelingstandtneedstoftothertpeople)
Self-knowledget(recognizingtone’stowntdesires,tstrengths,tweaknesses,tandtemotionaltstability)
Culturaltidentityt(knowledgetoftone’stowntculture)

·        
Individualstthattareteffectivetandtappropriatetintinterculturaltsituationstdisplaythightlevelstoftculturaltself-awarenesstandtunderstandtthetinfluencetoftculturetontbehavior,tvalues,tandtbeliefs.tInterculturaltcompetencetistachievedtthroughtatsettoftskillstthattincludestcognitive,taffective,tandtbehavioraltprocesses.

·        
First,tcognitivetprocessestimplytthetunderstandingtoftsituationaltandtenvironmentaltaspectstoftinterculturaltinteractionstandtthetapplicationtoftinterculturaltawareness,twhichtistaffectedtbytthetunderstandingtoftthetselftandtowntculture.tSelf-awarenesstintinterculturaltsituationstrefersttotthetabilitytoftself-monitoringtintsuchtinteractions.tOntthetotherthand,tculturaltawarenesstleadstthetindividualttotantunderstandingtofthowthis/hertowntculturetdeterminestactions,tthoughts,tandtpersonality.

·        
Secondly,taffectivetprocessestdefinetthetemotionstthattspantduringtinterculturaltinteractions.tThesetemotionstaretstronglytrelatedttotself-concept,topen-mindedness,tnon-judgementalism,tandtsocialtrelaxation.tIntgeneral,tpositivetemotionstgeneratetrespecttfortothertculturestandttheirtdifference.

·        
Finally,tbehavioraltprocessestreferttothowteffectivelytandtappropriatelytthetindividualtdirectstactionsttotachievetcommunicationtgoals.tActionstduringtinterculturaltinteractionstaretinfluencedtbytthetabilityttotconveytatmessage,tproficiencytwithtthetlanguage,tflexibilitytandtmanagementtoftbehavior,tandtsocialtskills

Creatingtinterculturaltcompetence

Interculturaltcompetencetistdeterminedtbytthetpresencetoftcognitive,taffective,tandtbehavioraltabilitiestthattdirectlytshapetcommunicationtacrosstcultures.tThesetessentialtabilitiestcantbetseparatedtintotfivetspecifictskillstthattaretobtainedtthroughteducationtandtexperience

1.   Mindfulness:tthetabilitytoftbeingtcognitivelytawaretofthowtthetcommunicationtandtinteractiontwithtotherstistdeveloped.tIttistimportantttotfocustmoretintthetprocesstoftthetinteractiontthantitstoutcometwhiletmaintainingtintperspectivetthetdesiredtcommunicationtgoals.tFortexample,tittwouldtbetbetterttotformulatetquestionstsuchtast”WhattcantItsaytortdottothelptthistprocess?”trathertthant”Willttheytliketme?t

2.   Cognitivetflexibility:tthetabilitytoftcreatingtnewtcategoriestoftinformationtrathertthantkeepingtoldtcategories.tThistskilltincludestopeningttotnewtinformation,ttakingtmoretthantonetperspective,tandtunderstandingtpersonaltwaystoftinterpretingtmessagestandtsituationst

3.   Tolerancetfortambiguity:tthetabilityttotmaintaintfocustintsituationstthattaretnottcleartrathertthantbecomingtanxioustandttotmethodicallytdeterminetthetbesttapproachtastthetsituationtevolves.tGenerally,tlow-tolerancetindividualstlooktfortinformationtthattsupportsttheirtbelievestwhilethigh-tolerancetindividualstlooktfortinformationtthattgivestantunderstandingtoftthetsituationtandtothers.

4.   Behavioraltflexibility:tthetabilityttotadapttandtaccommodatetbehaviorsttotatdifferenttculture.tAlthoughtknowingtatsecondtlanguagetcouldtbetimportanttfortthistskill,tittdoestnottnecessarilyttranslatetintotculturaltadaptability.tThetindividualtmusttbetwillingttotassimilatetthetnewtculture.

5.   Cross-culturaltempathy:tthetabilityttotvisualizetwithtthetimaginationtthetsituationtoftanothertpersontfromtantintellectualtandtemotionaltpointtoftview.tDemonstratingtempathytincludestthetabilitiestoftconnectingtemotionallytwithtpeople,tshowingtcompassion,tthinkingtintmoretthantonetperspective,tandtlisteningtactively

HistorytintAmericantethictstudies

ThetUnitedtStatestintitstearliestthistorythadtatculturetinfluencedtheavilytbytitstNortherntEuropeantpopulation,tprimarilytfromtthetBritishtIsles,twhotoriginallytsettledtintthetoriginaltBritishtColonies.tWhiletthetindigenoustpeoples,tknowntastIndians,tweretthetlargesttpopulationtoftNorthtAmerica,ttheytweretslowlytpushedtawaytfromtthetEasterntSeaboardtintotthetinteriortoftNorthtAmericatduringtthet17thtcentury,t18thtcentury,tandt19thtcenturyt(seetIndiantRemovaltActtdescribingtspecifictactionstduringtearlyt19thtcentury).tDuringtthistperiod,tpeopletfromtthetBritishtIslest(EnglandtandtScotlandtprimarily)tbroughttthetculturetandtreligiontoftthetBritishtIslestwithtthemttotthetUnitedtStatestandtbecametthetdominanttpoliticaltandtculturaltgrouptalongtthetEasterntSeaboardtoftNorthtAmerica.

BothtvoluntarytimmigrationtfromtothertregionstastwelltastthetresultstoftthetAtlantictslavettrade,tbroughttatmixtoftpeoplettotthetAmericas,tincludingtEuropeans,tAfricans,tand,ttotatlessertextenttuntiltthet20thtcentury,tAsians.tThustbegantthetprocesstoftdiversifyingtthetpopulationtoftthetWesterntHemisphere.tWhiletthetmajoritytoftthetU.S.tpopulationtweretwhitetimmigrantstfromtnortherntandtwesterntEuropetandttheirtdescendants,ttheytmaintainedtmosttoftthetpower,tsocialtandteconomic,toftthetnation.

IntthetU.S.tcontext,timmigrationtfromtthet1840stonwardtdiversifiedtthetethnictcompositiontoftthetnation.tDuringtthetearlytparttoftthet20thtcentury,tsoutherntandteasterntEuropeantimmigrantstandttheirtdescendantstbecametatlargertpercentagetoftthetpopulation,tbuttastrecenttimmigrantstconcentratedtinturbantareastweretalsotverytoftentpoortandtlackingtintbasicthealthytlivingtandtworkingtconditions.tDescendantstoftAfricantslavestandtimmigrantstfacedtatmuchtmoretdifficulttchallengetduettottheirtskintcolortandtdiscriminationtenforcedtbytlegaltsystems,tsuchtastthetJimtCrowtlawstintthetUnitedtStates.tSincetthet1960s,tAfricantAmericanstastwelltastothertminoritytgroupstsuchtastMexicantAmericansthavetgainedtgreatertsocialtandteconomictstatustandtpower.

Nonetheless,tthetdominanttmodelstofteducationtandtsocialtservicestretainedtmodelstdevelopedtbytnortherntandtwesterntEuropeantintellectuals,teventsuchtwell-meaningtandtimportanttreformerstastJanetAddamstandtJacobtRiis.tAftertthetCiviltRightstMovementtoftthet1950standt1960s,tthough,tsocialtworkers,tactivists,tandteventhealthcaretproviderstbeganttotexaminettheirtpracticesttotseetifttheytweretasteffectivetintAfricantAmerican,tLatino,tandteventAsiantAmericantcommunitiestintthetU.S.tThetarrivaltoftmoretthanthalftatmilliontSoutheasttAsiantrefugees,tfromt1975ttot1992,tfortexample,ttestedtthetabilitytoftmedicaltandtsocialtworkersttotcontinueteffectivetpracticetamongtspeakerstoftothertlanguagestandtamongtthosetcomingtfromtverytdifferenttunderstandingstofteverythingtfromtmentalthealthttotcharity.

Educationtintthetunitedtstates

Withtthetlargertpopulationtoftminoritiestandtracialtintegrationtduringtthet1960standt1970s,tthetpublictschooltsystemtoftthetUnitedtStatesthadttotgrappletwithtissuestoftculturaltsensitivitytastmosttteacherstintpublictschooltsystemtcametfromtwhite,tmiddletclasstbackgrounds.tMosttoftthesetteacherstwereteducated,tprimarilytEnglishtspeaking,tandtprimarilytfromtthetWesterntEuropeantcultures.tTheytoftenthadttroublettryingttotcommunicatetwithtspeakerstoftlimitedtEnglishtproficiency,tlettalonetpeopletoftvastlytdifferenttvaluetsystemstandtnormativetbehaviorstfromtthattoftAnglo-Europeantculture.tThetpurposetofttrainingteducatorstandtotherstintthetareatoftculturaltcompetencetisttotprovidetnewtteacherstthetbackgroundtandtskillsttotworkteffectivelytwithtchildrentoftalltbackgroundstandtsocialtclasses.

WithtthetgrowingtdiversitytoftthetstudenttbodytintU.S.tpublictschool,tittistincreasinglytimperativetthattteachersthavetandtcontinuallytdeveloptatculturaltcompetencetthattenablestthemttotconnecttwith,trespondtto,tandtinteractteffectivelytwithttheirtpupils.tThetachievementtgaptbetweentculturaltminoritytandtmajoritytstudentstsuggeststatcommunicationtdisconnecttoftentoccurstintminoritytclassroomstbecausetculturaltmismatchtbetweentteacherstandtstudentstistcommontandtshouldtnottpreventtpositive,tproductivetfortbothtparties,tprovidedttheteducatortistatculturallytcompetenttcommunicator.tOvertthetlasttfewtdecades,tscholarsthavetincreasinglytshowntinteresttintthetrelationshiptbetweentlearning,treading,tschema,tandtculture.tPeople’stschematdependstonttheirtsocialtlocation,twhich,tastAndersont(1984)texplains,tincludestatreader’stage,tsex,trace,treligion,tnationality,tandtoccupation,tamongsttothertfactors.tConsideringtschematatdeterminethowtpeopletunderstand,tinterpret,tandtanalyzeteverythingtinttheirtworld,tittistcleartthattbackgroundtandtexperiencetreallytdotaffecttthetlearningtandtteachingtprocesses,tandthowteachtshouldtbetapproachedtintcontext.t”Intshort,”tAndersont(1984)tsays,t”thetschematthattwilltbetbroughtttotbeartontattexttdependstupontthetreader’stculture”t(p.t374-375).tMoretsimply,tAndersont(1984)tdescribestatperson’stschematasttheirt”organizedtknowledgetabouttthetworld”t(p.t372).tIntconsideringtthetroletoftschema,tonetofttheteducator’stprincipaltfunctionstintteaching,tparticularlytwithtliteracy,tisttot”‘bridgetthetgaptbetweentwhattthetlearnertalreadytknowstandtwhatthetneedsttotknowtbeforethetcantsuccessfullytlearntthettasktatthand'”t(Anderson,t1984,tp.t382).tThististimportanttbecausetStatont(1989)texplainstthattstudenttlearning—i.e.tsuccessfultcommunicationtbetweentinstructortandtpupil—occurstwhentteacherstandtstudentstcomettot”sharedtunderstandings”t(p.t364).tThus,tteacherstmusttremembertthatttheytaret”culturaltworkers,tnottneutraltprofessionalstusingtskillstontatculturally-detachedtplayingtfield”t(Blanchett,tMumfordt&tBeachum,t2005,tp.t306).

TeacherstandtadministratorstintthetpublictschooltsystemstoftthetUnitedtStatestcometintcontacttwithtatwidetvarietytoftsub-culturestandtaretattthetforefronttoftthetchallengetoftbringingtdiversetgroupsttogethertwithintatlargertAmericantsociety.tIssuestconfrontingtteacherstandtadministratorstontatdailytbasistincludetstudenttlearningtdisabilities,tstudenttbehavioraltproblems,tchildtabuse,tdrugtaddiction,tmentalthealth,tandtpoverty,tmosttoftwhichtarethandledtdifferentlytwithintdifferenttculturestandtcommunitiest

Examplestoftculturaltconflictstoftentseentbytteacherstintthetpublictschooltsystemtinclude:

·        
roletoftwomentintthetfamilytandtthetdecisionsttheytcantmake

·        
practicestamongtculturaltgroupst(e.g.tfiretcupping)

·        
symboltsystemstamongtculturaltgroups

crosstculturaltcompetence

Cross-culturaltcompetencet(3C)thastgeneratedtconfusingtandtcontradictorytdefinitionstbecausetitthastbeentstudiedtbytatwidetvarietytoftacademictapproachestandtprofessionaltfields.tOnetauthortidentifiedteleventdifferentttermstthatthavetsometequivalencettot3C:tculturaltsavvy,tastuteness,tappreciation,tliteracytortfluency,tadaptability,tterrain,texpertise,tcompetency,tawareness,tintelligence,tandtunderstanding.15tThetUnitedtStatestArmytResearchtInstitute,twhichtistcurrentlytengagedtintatstudytoft3Cthastdefinedtittast”Atsettoftcognitive,tbehavioral,tandtaffective/motivationaltcomponentstthattenabletindividualsttotadaptteffectivelytintinterculturaltenvironments”.16

Organizationstintacademia,tbusiness,thealthtcare,tgovernmenttsecurity,tandtdevelopmentaltaidtagenciesthavetalltsoughtttotuset3Ctintonetwaytortanother.tPoortresultsthavetoftentbeentobtainedtduettotatlacktoftrigorouststudytoft3Ctandtatreliancetont”commontsense”tapproaches.15

Cross-culturaltcompetencetdoestnottoperatetintatvacuum,thowever.tOnettheoreticaltconstructtpositstthatt3C,tlanguagetproficiency,tandtregionaltknowledgetaretdistincttskillstthattaretinextricablytlinked,tbutttotvaryingtdegreestdependingtontthetcontexttintwhichttheytaretemployed.tInteducationaltsettings,tBloom’staffectivetandtcognitivettaxonomies1718tservetastanteffectivetframeworktfortdescribingtthetoverlappingtareastamongtthesetthreetdisciplines:tattthetreceivingtandtknowledgetlevels,t3Ctcantoperatetwithtnear-independencetfromtlanguagetproficiencytandtregionaltknowledge.tBut,tastonetapproachestthetinternalizingtandtevaluationtlevels,tthetoverlappingtareastapproachttotality.

Thetdevelopmenttoftinterculturaltcompetencetistmostlytbasedtontthetindividual’stexperiencestwhilethetortshetistcommunicatingtwithtdifferenttcultures.tWhentinteractingtwithtpeopletfromtothertcultures,tthetindividualtexperiencestcertaintobstaclestthattaretcausedtbytdifferencestintculturaltunderstandingtbetweenttwotpeopletfromtdifferenttcultures.tSuchtexperiencestmaytmotivatetthetindividualttotacquiretskillstthattcanthelpthimttotcommunicatethistpointtoftviewttotantaudiencetbelongingttotatdifferenttculturaltethnicitytandtbackground.

ImmigrantstAndtInternationaltStudents

Atsalienttissue,tespeciallytfortpeopletlivingtintcountriestothertthanttheirtnativetcountry,tistthetissuetoftwhichtculturettheytshouldtfollow:ttheirtnativetculturetortthetonetinttheirtnewtsurroundings.

Internationaltstudentstalsotfacetthistissue:ttheythavetatchoicetoftmodifyingttheirtculturaltboundariestandtadaptingttotthetculturetaroundtthemtortholdingtonttottheirtnativetculturetandtsurroundingtthemselvestwithtpeopletfromttheirtowntcountry.tThetstudentstwhotdecidettotholdtonttottheirtnativetculturetaretthosetwhotexperiencetthetmosttproblemstinttheirtuniversitytlifetandtwhotencountertfrequenttculturetshocks.tButtinternationaltstudentstwhotadapttthemselvesttotthetculturetsurroundingtthemt(andtwhotinteracttmoretwithtdomestictstudents)twilltincreasettheirtknowledgetoftthetdomestictculture,twhichtmaythelptthemttot”blendtin”tmore.tIntthetarticletittstated,t”Segmentedtassimilationttheoriststarguetthattstudentstfromtlesstaffluenttandtracialtandtethnictminoritytimmigranttfamiliestfacetatnumbertofteducationalthurdlestandtbarrierstthattoftentstemtfromtracial,tethnic,tandtgendertbiasestandtdiscriminationtembeddedtwithintthetU.S.tpublictschooltsystem”t(Bondy).19tSuchtindividualstmaytbetsaidttothavetadoptedtbiculturaltidentities.

ETHNOCENTRISM

AnothertissuetthattstandstouttintinterculturaltcommunicationtistthetattitudetstemmingtfromtEthnocentrism.tLeVinetandtCampbellt(astcitedtintLintandtRancer,t2003)20tdefinestethnocentrismtastpeople’sttendencyttotviewttheirtculturetortin-grouptastsuperiorttotothertgroups,tandttotjudgetthosetgroupsttottheirtstandards.tWithtethnocentrictattitudes,tthosetincapablettotexpandttheirtviewtoftdifferenttculturestcouldtcreatetconflicttbetweentgroups.tIgnorancettotdiversitytandtculturaltgroupstcontributesttotpreventiontoftpeacefultinteractiontintatfast-pacedtglobalizingtworld.tThetcounterparttoftethnocentrismtistethnorelativism:tthetabilityttotseetmultipletvalues,tbeliefs,tnormstetc.tintthetworldtastculturaltrathertthantuniversal;tbeingtablettotunderstandtandtaccepttdifferenttcultures.

 

 

 

 

Elements

Intantattemptttotoffertsolutionstfortdevelopingtculturaltcompetence,tDiversitytTrainingtUniversitytInternationalt(DTUI)tisolatedtfourtcognitivetcomponents:t(a)tAwareness,t(b)tAttitude,t(c)tKnowledge,tandt(d)tSkills.

Awareness.tAwarenesstistconsciousnesstoftone’stpersonaltreactionsttotpeopletwhotaretdifferent.tAtpolicetofficertwhotrecognizestthatthetprofilestpeopletwhotlooktlikettheytaretfromtMexicotast”illegaltaliens”thastculturaltawarenesstofthistreactionsttotthistgrouptoftpeople.
Attitude.tPaultPedersen’stmulticulturaltcompetencetmodeltemphasizedtthreetcomponents:tawareness,tknowledgetandtskills.tDTUItaddedtthetattitudetcomponenttintorderttotemphasizetthetdifferencetbetweenttrainingtthattincreasestawarenesstoftculturaltbiastandtbeliefstintgeneraltandttrainingtthatthastparticipantstcarefullytexaminettheirtowntbeliefstandtvaluestabouttculturaltdifferences.
Knowledge.tSocialtsciencetresearchtindicatestthattourtvaluestandtbeliefstabouttequalitytmaytbetinconsistenttwithtourtbehaviors,tandtwetironicallytmaytbetunawaretoftit.tSocialtpsychologisttPatriciatDevinetandthertcolleagues,tfortexample,tshowedtinttheirtresearchtthattmanytpeopletwhotscoretlowtontatprejudicettestttendttotdotthingstintcrosstculturaltencounterstthattexemplifytprejudicet(e.g.,tusingtout-datedtlabelstsuchtast”negroes”tort”colored”.).tThistmakestthetKnowledgetcomponenttantimportanttparttoftculturaltcompetencetdevelopment.
Skills.tThetSkillstcomponenttfocusestontpracticingtculturaltcompetencettotperfection.tCommunicationtistthetfundamentalttooltbytwhichtpeopletinteracttintorganizations.tThistincludestgesturestandtothertnon-verbaltcommunicationtthatttendttotvarytfromtculturettotculture

ThetthreetcomponentstoftInterculturaltCompetenciestandttheirtCollaboration

 

 

Cognitivetcomponent

ü  Knowledgetabouttothertcultures

ü  Theoreticletknowledgetoftculturest(knowledgetabouttthetwaytculturetwork,culturaltdifferencestandttheirtimplication)

ü  Self-awarness

Affectivetcomponent

ü  Interesttandtopentmindednessttowardstothertcultures

ü  Empathytandtabilityttotunderstandtothers

Pragmatic-communicativetcomponent

ü  Usetoftappropriatetcommunicationtpatterns

ü   

 

BenefitstOftInterculturaltCommunicationtCompetence

·       
Improvingtverbaltandtnontverbaltcommunication

·       
Becomingtbettertintrecognizingtandtundertakingtcommunicationtbehaviortintvarioustcontext

·       
Bettertadaptationttotthetnewtenvironment

·       
Bettertunderstandingtoftone’stowntculture

·       
Learningtabouttcustomstandthabitualtbehaviorstoftmemberstoftothertcultures

·       
Willingnessttotaccepttdifference

·       
Personaltgrowthtthroughtincreasedttolerance

·       
Developingtpositivetattitudettowardtothers

 

ObstacletintInterculturaltCommunication

Verbaltnontverbal

Accenttgestures

Connotationteyetcontact

Rhythmtfacialtexpression

Idiomsttouch

Politetusagetposture

 

t

EXAMINATIONtANDtIMPROVEMENTtINtINTERCULTURALtCOMMUNICATIONtCOMPETANCE

 

AdopttCorvrecttAttitude

1tToleratetAmbiguity/

·       
Identiytthetmisunderstanding

·       
Tryttotunderstandtthetpossibletreasontoftthetmisunderstanding

·       
Sharetyourtexpertisetwithtothertcolleguesttotpreventtthetproblemthappeningtagain

2tBetOpentMinded

·       
Antopentmindedtpersontintwillingttotreceivetthetideastandtopiniontoftothers

·       
Opentmindedtpeopletistawaretofttheirtowntculturetvaluestandtrecognizetthattother’stculturetvaluestaretdifferent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       
Sala(originallytfromtfiji)twhentItcametherettotAustraliattwotyearstagopeopletattworktwouldtfeeltmythairs.ittmadetmetuncomfortable.wetdon’ttgotaroundttouchingtpeopletontthetheadtintmytfijiantculture

·       
Maryt(originallytfromtIreland)tintthetfijiantculturettouchingthairtistnottdone.i’mtguiltytontdonetthistintmanytoccasiontbacausetI’vetbeentfriendstwithtfijiantattwork.Itwouldtruntmytfingerstthroughttheirthairstandtsaidt’howtItlovetyourthair’

 

AcquiretKnowledgetAbouttOtherstThetmoretwetknowtabouttothertculturetthetmoretwet

rettotbetcompetenttinterculturetcommunicators.theretaretseveraltwaysttotlearntabouttothertculture

1tobserve

Peopletcantobservetthetmemberstoftothertcultures.noticethowttheirtvaluestritualstandtcommunicationtstylestsimilarttotandtdifferenttfromttheirtowntculturet

2tFormallytstudy

Youtcantlearntabouttothertculturestbytreadingtaccounttbyttheirtmemberstandtetnographictresearchtstudiestbyttalkingtcoursestandtbytinterviewingtmembertoftthetculturetaboutttheirtowntvaluestandtrituals

3tImmersetYourselftIntThetCulture

Youtcantlearntabouttothertculturetbytactiveltytparticipatingtintit

 

DeveloptCulture-tSpecifictSkills

1tpracticetlistening

Languagetandtnontverbaltcommunicationtvarytacrosstculture.focustcloselytontthetotherstandtlistentattentively

2tInterculturaltEmpathyt

Imaginativelytplacingtyourselftintothertperson’stculturaltworldttotattemptttotexperiencetwhattheshetistexperiencingt

3tFlexibilityt

Thetabilityttotadjusttyourtcommunicationttotfittthetothertpersontandtthetsituation