Identify consent form which must state essential components, such

Identify ethical issues in fieldwork such as participation,
consent, privacy, confidentiality, data, and other protections.
Identify ethical issues in animal research

participation & consent

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the main
purpose of human participations in clinical trials or research
studies is to serve as sources of data. However, researchers have a
duty to ensure that participants rights are not infringed upon and
must protect the ‘protect
the life, health, dignity, integrity, right to self-determination,
privacy and confidentiality of personal information of research
subjects’.4
any mistreatment of research subjects is considered research
misconduct. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037952/

during the performance of clinical
trials or research studies participants must provided the research
with voluntary and informed consent; the participant(s) should be
made aware of any risks or stipulations of a study and must sign a
written and dated informed consent form, which must be in line with
the ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline, Guideline for Good Clinical
Practice. Subjects of a study or trial must be also made aware of
their right to refuse and withdraw consent at anytime within a study
without fear of reprisal.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037952/

When a partipant agrees to consent to a
study or trial they must signed an informed consent form which must
state essential components, such as; the purpose and duration of the
research study, potential benefits and/or risks, the rights of the
participant in regards to confidentiality and any compensation
arising from research-related injury, and any costs incurred during
participation.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037952/table/T1/

privacy & confidentiality

to ensure the privacy and protection of
participants of a research study or clinical trial, researchers must
protect any identifiying information given to them by the subject or
subjects. The international committee of medical journal editors
suggests that non-essential data – names, initials, etc. — should
be omitted when possible, and any identifiying information must be
reviewed by and then consented (in written form) to by the subject
before the publication of any report that includes such data.

The health insurance portability and
accountability act puts in place requirements for the “informed
consent disclosure and standards for electronic exchange, privacy and
information security.”

Identify
ethical issues in animal research

When
performing research where animals are involved, it is vital for the
researcher to clarify the scientific purpose of utilizing animals;
they must be able to establish the benefit of using animals within
the experiment and clarify how the use thereof can improve the
quality of life of humans or other animals, and state how any
scientific knowledge acquired during the study will increase our
understanding of biomedicine or a certain species of animal.

In
studies where animals are the subject of experimentation, it is
important that good experimental design is employed to reduce harm.
It is vital to take humane consideration towards these animal
subjects, and those handling these animals should be supervised in
order to ensure the correct handling and, in situations where it is
needed, the correct anesthetization of the subjects. When
anesthetization is a factor, due to any potential harm or discomfort
that may come to animal who is conscious, that animal should remain
under anesthesia until the procedure has concluded.

Further
methodologies, reccommended in Ethical Considerations in Animal
Studies https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714121/
include;

Reduce
the numbers of animals used for experimentation

Reduce
unnecessary duplication of experiments

Minimize
pain and distress

Among
these reccomendations comes the advisory that procedures on animals
should be reviewed by a local animal care committee in an effort to
ensure that procedures are appropriate and humane.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714121/