Generally, support a safe evacuation process. The combination of

Generally,
most hard engineering countermeasures were not designed to face tsunami created
by high magnitude earthquake. As a result, many of them would be destroyed, and
the tsunami would not be stopped. In 2011 Japan was hit by a tsunami caused by
the biggest earthquake in its history. Even the most tsunami-protected areas in
the country with highest tsunami-awareness were not prepared to face such
disaster. So most of hard-engineering structures included breakwaters,
embankment walls, water gates and control forests failed to protect. The
failure of hard engineering methods reminds us that structural measures alone
are not enough to protect community and properties from a such disaster. While
these construction techniques could reduce the impact, they should be designed
to survive even when the tsunami overflows. Coastal residents should also
understand the function and limits of hard structures.

On this
basis, non-structural measures, such as monitoring, are very important to
promote rapid evacuation in the event of a tsunami. An adequate communication
system for tsunami warnings and more evacuation accommodation with evacuation
routes in good condition could support a safe evacuation process. The
combination of hard-engineering and non-structural measures is very important
to reduce the loss during big tsunami.

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Nonetheless,
in 2011 the first tsunami warning was announced 3 minutes after the earthquake as
is normal. But underestimation of earthquake`s magnitude caused the underestimation
of the projected tsunami height. Another problem was the inappropriate
announcement of tsunami observations. All observed tsunami heights were
announced based on time, when waves were still small, which led some people to
believe that evacuation was unnecessary. So, it is also important to work with local
communities to increase their awareness and give some experience and
information about tsunami.