CHAPTER second University College in East Africa on 25th

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

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The
University of Nairobi (UoN) is a collegiate research university based in
Nairobi. It is one of the largest universities in Kenya. Although its history
as an educational institution dates back to 1956, it did not become an
independent university until 1970. In this year, the University of East Africa
was split into three independent universities: Makerere University in Uganda,
the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, and the University of Nairobi. The
inception of the University of Nairobi is traced back to 1956, with the
establishment of the Royal Technical College which admitted its first lot of
A-level graduates for technical courses in April the same year. The Royal
Technical College was transformed into the second University College in East
Africa on 25th June, 1961 under the name Royal College Nairobi and was admitted
into special relations with the University of London whereupon it immediately
began preparing students in the faculties of Arts, Science and Engineering for
award degrees of the University of London. Meanwhile, students in other
faculties such as the Faculty of Special Professional Studies (later renamed
Faculty of Commerce) and Faculty of Architecture continued to offer diplomas
for qualifications of professional bodies/ institutions.

 

On
20th May 1964, the Royal College Nairobi was renamed University College Nairobi
as a constituent college of inter-territorial, Federal University of East
Africa, and henceforth the enrolled students were to study for degrees of the
University of East Africa and not London as was the case before. In 1970, the
University College Nairobi transformed into the first national university in
Kenya and was renamed the University of Nairobi.

 

 

 

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

 

Information
is important in every aspect of our daily activities, so the management of
information is very important so that what is said or written is kept safe. To
avoid destruction and misuse of the information it is advisable to keep the
information in a format that it can be used without it being manipulated.

Information
can be managed in different formats but digital information tends to be hard to
manage. The management of digital information is very critical because it is
usually prone to manipulation in various ways because it is used by many
people.

Research
seeks to establish the benefits of digital information management and its value
as well as to the organization which includes the efficient and effective
delivery of services, the exploitation, sharing, use and re-use of information
assets of the organization, the potential rationalization of the organizations
technology infrastructure, the efficient and effective use of the technology
infrastructure.

This
study is important as a records management worker so as to provide solutions
and strategies to the organization.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM

 

Digital
information management is important for organizations, at the Nairobi
university the information materials are managed in a manual system i.e most of
the information materials are kept in files and sometimes envelopes, hence the
need to come up with suggestive ways on how the information materials can be
managed in a digital format to avoid manipulation and destruction.

The
information materials at the university are in paper form and if handled by
many people they tend to wear out and loose value and eventually get destroyed.
The research will help to identify more appropriate digital ways in which the
information materials can be managed to keep them safe and for a longer period
of time.

                      

1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY

 

The
aim of this study is to help the organization embark in a technological way of
managing information materials.

Make
recommendation on which system to apply to the university.

 

1.4   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 

The
research will help the organization achieve the following objectives:

 

•To
identify the kind of information management system used at the Nairobi
university.

 


To establish ways in which the information management will be managed in a
digital format.

 

•To
find out the benefits of applying digital information management at the
university.

 


To identify challenges that will occur during the application of the digital
information

Management.

 

•To
make recommendations the use digital information management to the organization.

 

 

1.5      RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

•     What is the information management systems
used at the organization?

 

•     What ways will information management be
managed in a digital form?

 

•     What are the benefits of applying digital
information management systems in the organization?

 

•     What challenges are experienced during the
management of digital information to the staff at the university and the other
users?

 

•     What recommendations are to be given for
the use of digital information management?

 

 

 

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
STUDY

 

The
research is to help develop knowledge in digital information and records
management principles, processes, and procedures; understand the management of
digital information in electronic document management systems and other business
systems, including the relevant standards that guide their management; and
research emerging issues concerning digital information management to the  staff at the university of Nairobi.

 

 

1.7 JUSTIFICATION OF THE
STUDY

 

For
the University to meet its objectives and carry out its day today activities
with ease, effectively and efficiently than it should embark on the application
of digital information management so that the information in the institution
can be managed well in a digital format due to technology upgrade in the
society.

 

1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

The
study will focus on the Nairobi University of Kenya information management; the
research will help the institution by giving them a digital information system
idea that can help the university in the management of its information.

 

 

 

1.9 LIMITATION OF THE
STUDY

 

The
study is designed to cover the Nairobi University, the limitations expected to
encounter includes;

1.   Time constraint due to the fact that the
period allocated for the research is short to allow adequate collection of
information on the study.

2.   Finance problem since i will be needed to buy
materials, print documents and travel to the place of data collection, and
access to information on the topic.

3.   The initial unwillingness of the school
administrators in allowing the researchers to use their institution for the
research study and the provision of requested information.

4.   The unwillingness of some of the respondents
to return the questionnaires.

 

1.10 Definition of Key Terms

 

·        
Efficient: a system or machine achieving
maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense.

·        
Effective: successful in producing an
intended result

·        
Management: the process of dealing with
and controlling things or people

·        
Information: what is conveyed or
represented by a particular arrangement or sequence of things.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.0  INTRODUCTION

 

Literature review is the strategy,
procedures and measuring instruments useful in investigating the problem in
question.

This chapter helps to integrate and
summarize all the relevant data/information in the area of study. It also gives
the researcher a better understanding of the area under investigation. It also
helps to locate, identify and compile all the study reports, books, articles
and other related information material to the subject of the study.

It is important because it narrows
down to research problems to an understandable concept methods that deal with
the problem. The review should be extensive and thorough to get detailed
knowledge of the study, (Mugenda 2007)

 

 

2.1  LITERATURE REVIEW

 

Information,
as we know it today, includes both electronic and physical information. The organizational
structure must be capable of managing this information throughout the
information lifecycle regardless of source or format (data, paper documents,
electronic documents, audio, video, etc.) for delivery through multiple
channels that may include cell phones and web interfaces. According to
Wikipedia, Information management (IM) is the collection and management of
information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information
to one or more audiences. This sometimes involves those who have a stake in, or
a right to that information. Management means the organization of and control
over the structure, processing and delivery of information.

Given
these criteria, we can then say that the focus of IM is the ability of
organizations or institutions to capture, manage, preserve, store and deliver
the right information to the right people at the right time.

We
need to make better use of the information we collect from our clients and
other sources to enhance our ability to target and monitor compliance on the
basis of risk differentiation across market segments, products and
capabilities. We also need to manage our information better to improve the
ability of our clients to meet their obligations. In order to do this, we need
to identify and manage information on the basis of a clear understanding of the
leverage points for our business, so that we can make better-informed
decisions. We need to know that we are doing the right things and that we are
doing them right.

 

Information
management is, however, much more than just technology. Equally importantly, it
is about the business processes and practices that underpin the creation and
use of information. It is also about the information itself, including the
structure of information (‘information architecture’), metadata, content
quality, and more.

 

Information
management therefore encompasses:

 

·        
People

·        
Process

·        
Technology

·        
Content

2.1.1
Information management challenges

Organizations are confronted with many information
management problems and issues. In many ways, the growth of electronic
information (rather than paper) has only worsened these issues over the last
decade or two.

Common information management problems include:

·        
Large number of disparate information
management systems.

·        
Little integration or coordination between
information systems.

·        
Range of legacy systems requiring
upgrading or replacement.

·        
Direct competition between information
management systems.

·        
No clear strategic direction for the
overall technology environment.

·        
Limited and patchy adoption of existing
information systems by staff.

·        
Poor quality of information, including
lack of consistency, duplication, and out-of-date information.

·        
Little recognition and support of
information management by senior management.

·        
Limited resources for deploying, managing
or improving information systems.

·        
Lack of enterprise-wide definitions for
information types and values (no corporate-wide taxonomy).

·        
Large number of diverse business needs and
issues to be addressed.

·        
Lack of clarity around broader
organizational strategies and directions.

·        
Difficulties in changing working practices
and processes of staff.

·        
Internal politics impacting on the ability
to coordinate activities enterprise-wide.

 

 

2.1.2
The principles of information management

The following are the principles to ensure that
information management activities are effective and successful:

1.      Recognize
(and manage) complexity

 

2.      Focus  on adoption

Information management systems are
only successful if they are actually used by staff, and it is not sufficient to
simply focus on installing the software centrally.

In practice, most information
management systems need the active participation of staff throughout the
organization.

For example:

 

·        
Staff must save all key files into the
document/records management system.

·        
Decentralized authors must use the content
management system to regularly update the intranet.

·        
Lecturers must use the learning content
management system to deliver e-learning packages to their students.

 

3.      Deliver  tangible & visible benefits

 

4.      Priorities  according to business needs

 

5.      Take   a journey of a thousand steps

 

6.      Provide  strong leadership

 

7.      Mitigate  risks

 

8.      Communicate  extensively

 

9.      Aim  to deliver a seamless user experience

Users don’t understand systems. When
presented with six different information systems, each containing one-sixth of
what they want, they generally rely on a piece of paper instead. Educating
staff in the purpose and use of a disparate set of information systems is
difficult, and generally fruitless. The underlying goal should therefore be to
deliver a seamless user experience, one that hides the systems that the
information is coming from

For example:

 

·        
Delivering a single intranet (or
equivalent) that gives access to all information and tools.

·        
Ensuring a consistent look-and-feel across
all applications, including standard navigation and page layouts.

·        
Providing ‘single sign-on’ to all
applications.

 

10.  Choose  the first project very carefully

The choice of the first project
conducted as part of a broader information management strategy is critical.
This project must be selected carefully, to ensure that it:

 

·        
Demonstrates  the value of the information management
strategy

·        
Builds  momentum for future activities

·        
Generates  interest and enthusiasm from both end-users
and stakeholders

·        
Delivers tangible and visible benefits.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research
methodology

3.0  Introduction

This
chapter presents research methodology which will be used to gather data on the application
of digital information management at the University of Nairobi.

Research
methods can be defined as the systematic study of the methods that can be or
have been applied within a discipline. Methodology does not describe specific
methods; nevertheless, it does not specify several processes that need to be
followed. These processes constitute a generic framework, they may be broken
down in sub processes, they may be combined or their sequence may change.
However, any task exercise must carry out these processes in one form or
another (Kottler, 2006). The study involves various strategies that will be
used as a means of supporting the achievement of sound record management
programs.

This
chapter presents research methodology which will be used to gather data on the
application of digital information management at the University of Nairobi.

The
researcher will use qualitative research, and the purpose of qualitative
research is to seek activities, practices, understandings and perceptions of
the sample population about the area being researched on. Qualitative research
is advantageous in that it permits research to go beyond the statistical
results usually reported in quantitative research (Mugenda, 1999).

 

3.1  RESEARCH DESIGN

Burns  and 
Grove  (2003:195)  define 
a  research  design 
as  “a  blueprint 
for  conducting a study with
maximum control over factors that may interfere with the validity of the
findings”. Parahoo (1997:142) describes a research design as “a plan that
describes how, when and where data are to be collected and analyzed”.  Polit 
et  al  (2001:167) 
define  a  research 
design  as  “the 
researcher’s  overall  for 
answering  the  research 
question  or  testing 
the research  hypothesis.

The
methodology that will be used will include data collection tools like
interviews and questionnaires.

 

3.2  POPULATION OF STUDY

The
target population will cover the staff from the University of Nairobi including
librarians, lecturers, registrars and also the students who will be chosen
randomly.

Persons

Target population

Sample

Percentage

Lecturers

10

3

18

Librarians

10

7

20

Registrars

5

10

25

Students

10

15

25

 

 

 

 

                    
Fig. 1: Target population table

3.3  SAMPLING STRATEGY

 

Simple
random sampling will be used to select respondents whereby every person
selected at the university will have an equal chance of being selected, that
is, from the registrars, librarians and the lecturers. These respondents will
represent the sample study.

 

 

3.4  Data collection tools and techniques

3.4.1       
Questionnaire

Questionnaires
are a set of questions that have been structured down for the respondent to
fill. Questions will be given to the chosen sample to fill in and get results.
The questions that will be formulated will address a specific objective of the
study.

 

3.4.2       
Interviews

Interview
schedule is a set of interview questions which could either be structured or
semi-structured to be used by the interviewer while interviewing the respondent
(Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999).The researcher will conduct interviews to the
chosen sample of people whereby she will be asking questions and the
respondents answer. The interview will be a structured one.

 

 

3.5  DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

The
process of evaluating data using analytical and logical reasoning to examine
each component of the data provided. This form of analysis is just one of the
many steps that must be completed when conducting a research experiment. Data
from various sources is gathered, reviewed, and then analyzed to form some sort
of finding or conclusion. There are a variety of specific data analysis method,
some of which include data mining, text analytics, business intelligence, and
data visualizations.

https://www.businessdictionary.com/data-anaysis
retrieved on 18/1/2018.

The
data collected will be qualitative, well organized and categorized.

3.6
ETHICAL CONSIDERATION

Ethics has
become a cornerstone for conducting effective and meaningful research. As such,
the ethical behavior of individual researchers is under unprecedented scrutiny
(Best and Khan, 2006).  In today’s
society, any concerns regarding ethical practices will negatively influence
attitudes about science and the abuses committed. Therefore, this aspect of the
review will focus on the balance between the level of intrusion into the lives
of participants and the need of the data obtained.

REFERENCES

1.
  Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M.
(2005). Logical Analysis/Matrix Analysis: Qualitative data       analysis, 2nd ed. Newbury Park, Cal.:
Sage. Compiled by Donald R, 15 Methods of Data Analysis in Qualitative
Research, http://don.ratcliffs.net/qual/15methods.pdf.

2.
https://www.businessdictionary.com/data-anaysis

3.
   Laudon, Kenneth C.; Laudon, Jane P. (2009).
Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (11 ed.).

4.
Venkatraman, N., 1996. Managing IT resources as a value center.

5.
Mugenda, O. Mugenda, A. (1999) Research methods: Quantitative and Qualitative
Approaches. Nairobi, Kenya: Acts Presspublications.

6.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: methods and techniques, 2nd
rev.ed.New Delhi: New Age International.

7.
Burns  and  Grove 
(2003:195

8.  Parahoo (1997:142