ACUTE take over control of host machinery and divide

ACUTE VIRAL INFECTIONS Summary:Acute viral infections are named as it is rapid onset of disease and it is only for short duration caused by viruses. There are various types of viruses as viruses are:”Small entities containing genetic material and it replicate with the help of Host. It is surrounded by a protein coat.”Viruses can be enveloped and non-enveloped or naked. Viruses are at the border of living and non-living. Viruses are not yet included in any kingdom.The viruses enter in body through various things like using used utensils like syringes, through air droplets of sneezing & coughing of an infected person, through air containing virus, through physical contact etc. The handle, remotes etc contain virus through the hands of an infected person contain virus up to 2 hours.The viruses take over control of host machinery and divide to produce large number of viruses when mature the cell burst or bud off to release viruses and cause infection in other cells.Viruses are sometime beneficial to humans and most of the time they are pathogenic and cause infection. The common symptoms of most of the viral infections are fever, headache, body aches, runny nose, rash etc.Viral infections are of various types like respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, foodborne etc.Viruses are transmitted through feces, blood and body fluids, bite of mosquito, person to person.Prions are infectious particles that contain no nucleic acids, and viroids are small plant pathogens that do not encode proteins.These are types of viruses.Some of the Viral infections are poliomyelitis, influenza, herpes simplex, AIDS, measles etc Introduction: Virus:Virus is a small molecule containing genetic material (DNA & RNA) surrounded by a protein coat. Viruses cannot replicate without help of the host. They are non-living. They cause infection in an organism. The name is from Latin word meaning ‘slimy liquid’ or ‘poison’.                                  Viral infection:Viruses are small entities that are present almost everywhere. These are some how beneficial to living organisms and also cause infection in them. Any disease caused by viruses isknown as viral infection.                   Acute viral infections:Acute viral infections occur rapidly or spontaneously and cause disease and result in death. They are also known as ‘inapparent infection’ because infection cause very little or no clinical symptoms. Types of viral infection:Viral infection has various types:1. Respiratory viral infection:These types of infection affect airways, lungs and throat. These spread through air droplets of patient.e.g.  rhinovirus and influenza virus.               2. Viral skin infection:Viral skin infections affect upper surface of skin causes blisters and rash on skin. Infection may be mild to severe. It spread by touching patient.e.g. herpes simplex virus, molluscum contagiosum            3. Foodborne viral infection:Viruses are involved in several types of food poisoning and other infection. The infection depends on type of virus. It may spread through partially cooked and expired food.e.g. hepatitis A and rotavirus                 4. Sexually transmitted viral infections:Theses types of infection occur by contacting with blood and other body fluids. It is spread via physical contact.e.g.  genital herpes, hepatitis              Causes of viral infection:Viruses cause infection in host. The viruses take control over the host machinery and cause infection. They replicate with the help of host and produces large number of new viruses which when mature burst cell or bud of the cell and eliminated from the body and cause infection in other cells. Symptoms:Mostly symptoms of viral infections are same like:? Fever? Headache? Coughing? Sneezing? Runny nose? Muscle ache? Weakness rash Treatment:Most viral infections are not treated with drugs they are leave to resolve on its own by body’s own immunity. If the infection become severe they are treated with antiviral drugs. Sometime painkillers are recommended to relieve patient from pain. The most common viral infections are as follows:1. Flu:The virus is transmitted through air. The incubation period is 1-2 days. Flu is also known as influenza.  Symptoms:Symptoms include:? Fever? Runny/blocked nose? Headache? Muscle ache? Fever? Loss of appetite  Causes:  Influenza virus is the cause of flu or influenza. The virus spread through air, water droplets etc.  Influenza type A, B and C cause virus.  Transmission:The virus is transmitted through air, water droplets during sneezing and coughing of infected person, by using personals of patient etc. Treatment:Flu is not treated with drugs mostly it can be resolved on its own by body’s immunity. Hepatitis A and B are treated with antiviral drugs and hepatitis C is not treated with drugs.                        2. Measles:Measles virus is also spread through air. The incubation period is 10-14 days. It is highly infectious disease. It is also known as rubeola or morbilli.Symptoms:? Cough ? Fever? Conjunctivitis? Watery eyes? Rash? Body aches Causes:Measles is caused by rubeola virus. This virus lives in the mucus of throat and nose of an infected person.Transmission:The virus is transmitted and spread through infected person by water droplets and mainly by touching personal belongings of patient. The virus remains active for 2 hours on things touched by infected person.Treatment:The treatment is not treated with drugs. It is recommended to take rest and drink plenty of water. The patient is advised to wear sunglasses as measles is sensitive to light. Some cough and painkillers are given to relieve patient.3. Chicken pox:chicken pox is also known as varicella. The disease is characterized with red blisters on body and itching. Chicken pox mostly occur once in an individuals’ lifetime. The incubation period is 10-20 days. Symptoms:? Fever? Loss of appetite? Red bumps or blisters all over the body? Bumps are filled with fluid that cause itching? Headache? Body ache  Cause:Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes this disease. It is spread through touching things used by patients.  Transmission:The virus is transmitted through:? Coughing? Touching fluid from blisters? Air? SalivaTreatment:The patient is advised to take rest. The children or infected individual is recommended to stay home and take rest. Painkillers and some ointments are given to the patient. Infected person is advised to take lukewarm bath and wear soft clothes.                            4. Poliomyelitis:   Poliomyelitis sometimes cause paralysis. The incubation period is 1-3 weeks. The disease spreads through the feces of an infected person. Symptoms:? Fever? Partial paralysis? Throat ache? Muscle weaknessCauses:Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus. the only host for poliovirus is human. It is mostly transmitted through direct contact.Transmission:The virus is ingested through the feces of an infected person. It spreads through direct contact with the infected person. It transmits to unwashed hands of patients. Treatment:The infected person is recommended to take rest. Antiviral drugs are not available for this disease. Care is needed to recover the infection.                                            5. Yellow fever:It is a flu like disease which is caused by bite of mosquito. The incubation period of this infection lasts for 3-10 days. The name represents yellowing of skin or due to jaundice.Symptoms:? Chills? Fever? Headache? Jaundice? Joint aches? Shivers? Abdominal painCauses:Flavivirus causes yellow fever. The disease cannot pass from person to person. It occurs due to bite of mosquito.Transmission:The disease spread with the bite of mosquito to human or monkeys. It is not transmitted from person to person.Treatment:Treatment includes:? Giving fluids through veins? Maintaining blood pressure ? Giving treatments of infection occur