Abstract in the country is extremely low due to

Abstract

The sole purpose of this research is to identify the
quality of teaching in higher education institutions in Pakistan. It examines
the contribution of public as well as private institutions in providing better
level of education to the people of Pakistan. Mainly it identifies the gap
between the level of teaching in the private as well as public sector and gives
recommendations to fill the gaps.

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Keywords:  Higher
education, Efficiency, Teaching, Quality, Public and Private Institutions.

Introduction

At the time of independence, Pakistan has only one Public Sector University
that is university of Punjab, Lahore. Although Pakistan government has
established some universities but these are inadequate due to high demand
towards higher education. As a result, private sector established privately
managed higher education institutions in the country. So education is very
important and closely related with the development of any nation, and education
is considered as strength of any nation. According to terry and Thomas (1997)
fair and equal treatment given to all members are fit in the context of equity.
Students have equal opportunity to participate in each context of education.
Efficiency refers to maximize the educational output by using the available
resources internal and external efficiencies are the two types of efficiency in
the context of education. Education always contributes a significant part in
the economic and political development of the society and individual. Public
and private sector participation in the higher education system has increased.
Higher education demand has risen rapidly. Expansion of higher education in the
country is extremely low due to scarce public finances, so with the help of
liberal policy private sector is attracted to create institution of higher
education in Pakistan. Times higher education has issued its 13th edition of
world university rankings. Only seven institution of Pakistan are able to keep
their positions among top 980 universities. These seven universities include
COMSATS, National University of Science and Technology, Quaid e Azam
University, Bahauddin Zakariya University, University of Karachi and University
of Lahore. Pakistan just spend 2% of its GDP in higher education and it is less
than India, Iran and Bangladesh and according to Phil Baty it has committed to
spend 4 per cent by 2018. Pakistan has 59 million of fastest growing youth
population lying between 10 to 24 years of age, and if Pakistan invests in
higher education so definitely it will become a wise decision. A new program
named “vision 2025” claims to increase around 12% enrollment in higher
education of young people and PHD students also increase with a big ratio. Phil
baty believed that although Pakistan took big steps in order to improve
efficiency and equity in public and private sector universities but still the
advancement is quite slow. Further he adds, to enter in the global competition
Pakistan must require to work harder at improving its universities.

Objective

This report aims to
investigate about the level of efficiency in higher education institutions of
Pakistan and to examine the contribution of public as well as private
institutions in providing better level of education to the people of Pakistan.
This research examines the efficiency and equity of both public and private
higher education institutions. Although the growth of higher education in
Pakistan is very low but still, this research will be on purely educational
concern.

Research Methodology

The methodology of this research is based on
quantitative methods. Relevant survey was conducted within Karachi for this
purpose. In Karachi there are 73 public sector universities and almost 59
private universities. The students, teachers, administrators and senior
management of these universities were considered as population. From the above
discussed population universities, random university teachers were selected.
These randomly selected university teachers were included in the sample. For
data collection a questionnaire for teachers was designed to check the
responses.

Primary data was collected through online survey.
Secondary data was collected through analysis of official reports and documents
(published/unpublished) by the government of Pakistan.

Focusing on institutes of higher education in
Pakistan, queries were emailed to universities and recorded whether a
university responds to this enquiry or not and how long it takes. The values
obtained from these indicators were then used to assess the relative efficiency
of public and private universities. To make this research meaningful all
universities in the sample were taken from the Higher Education Commission of
Pakistan’s data base of approved universities so as to ensure a minimum level
of standard in terms of education quality and service delivery.

Education System in
Pakistan

Education has always been a
major concern in Pakistan. Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal
Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal
government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the
financing of research and development. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan
obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to
children of the age group 5 to 16 years. “The State shall provide free and
compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in
such a manner as may be determined by law”.

The education system in
Pakistan is generally divided into six levels: preschool (for the age from 3 to
5 years), primary (grades one through five), middle (grades six through eight),
high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC),
intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School
Certificate or HSSC), and university programs leading to undergraduate and
graduate degrees.

We begin with some definitions
of higher education and efficiency. “Education is a process through which a
nation develops its self-consciousness by developing the self-consciousness of
the individuals who compose it”. (Khalid, 1998; p.14). Another definition of
education is that “it is a social institution which provides mental, physical,
ideological and moral training to the individuals of the society, so as to
enable them to have full consciousness of their mission, purpose in life and to
equip them to achieve that purpose” (Ahmad, 1984; p.37).

Efficiency refers to the use
of resources in such a way as to maximize the educational output(s) possible
from their use. In the context of education efficiency is of two types.
Internal efficiency which is concerned with efficiency within the education
system; and external efficiency, which refers to the relationship between the
education system and the general economy. According to Mace ‘one argument often
associated with the World Bank and those espousing a more market based system
of education provision is that more involvement of communities and parents in
the payment for education will encourage greater efficiency’. (Unpublished ADB
Report 2005)

From the above definitions it
would appear that education is seen as a process of the intellectual
development of individuals through which their potentialities are developed and
the culture of the people is transmitted to the following generations.
Education generates not only new ideas and competency in individuals; it also
accelerates the pace of technological transformation.

Main Findings

The main task of this research
is to examine the quality of teaching in higher education institutions in
Pakistan in the public and private sector. This is done through a direct online
survey.

For
the convenience, responses of 30 teachers are taken as sample which showed the
following results:

There
are 33.33% male and 66.66% female i.e. out of 30, 10 are male teachers and 20
are female teachers. This shows that in teaching faculty of public and private
universities, majority are female teachers. 

55.1%
teachers are from public sector and the remaining 44.8% are from private sector
which means that there is a large number of teachers working in the public
sector. Most of the teachers are in the ages from 30-35.

Qualification
showed that mostly teachers are Post Graduates (M.Phill/MS) having experience
of nearly 10 years.

The
survey about job nature shows that 83% are full time or part time teachers, 10%
being on contract and 6% belonging to academic background. As results indicated
that most of the teachers were from government institutes, therefore it can be
said that government institutes mostly hired teachers on full time basis or the
government universities are promoting the teachers more quickly as compare to
the private universities.

According
to the results of our survey study; majority of the teachers agreed that their
public or private universities have managed programs to provide support to the
students as well as to enhance the teaching level of the teachers. These steps
of the higher education institutions of Pakistan not only encourages students
to learn effectively but also motivates the teachers to teach efficiently and
thus contributed towards increase the efficiency level of the higher education
institutions of a country.

It
also indicated that there is a proper system of initial recruitment of the
teachers in government as well as private universities which means that mostly
the hiring of teachers in universities is on merit basis.

Different
teaching techniques are also being used in the private sector to utilize the
skills of the students so that they can learn from a better perspective but use
of these techniques were not found in government universities. This means that
teachers of private institutes are working hard towards teaching their students
as compare to the teachers of the government institutes.

The
survey also showed that the teachers believed that their universities are also
focused on evaluation of the students in order to increase the efficiency level
of education provided by their universities.

70%
agreed to the statement that their colleagues are committed to prepare students
for advanced academic study. Most of the teachers of private universities
believed that their institution has been engaged in the adaptation and
upgrading of learning environments equipment, and facilities, aligned with
improvement of teaching and learning which means that teachers of government
universities do not think that their universities are doing something
remarkable to improve the quality of teaching and learning of their institutes.
Findings of the survey also indicated that there is no effective and efficient
internal quality system in public and private institutes that deal with the
quality of teaching and learning and hence contributed towards reducing the
level of efficiency in higher education institutions of country. On the other
hand, results indicated that both public as well as private universities are
providing different incentives including bonuses and appreciation prizes that
motivate teachers to teach in an efficient and effective way.

Overall
the results of this survey study in which the objective was to examine the
efficiency level of the higher education institutions of Pakistan including
both public and private universities indicated that efficiency level of
education in private institutes of Pakistan specifically Karachi is more than
the level of efficiency level in government institutes at teachers and students
level both. According to Sedgwick (2007), For many years now the public sector
has been unable to keep up with the demand for higher education. Because of the
great need to fill the education gap, the government has made it relatively
easy for the private sector to establish colleges and universities. As a
result, a record 49 new universities and other degree awarding institutes (most
of them private) have been established since 1999. While the quality of
Pakistan’s private universities varies widely, they all share some common
traits. Most of them have adopted the American model of higher education, which
features a four-year bachelor’s degree and system of credits. He believed that
non-government institutions can deliver higher quality education and do it far
more efficiently than the public sector. He also believed that private
universities introduce international standards of competence and
accountability. Our survey results are also evident from the research study by
Irshad et al (2015) according to which, one to one comparison of large medium
and small universities indicates that medium universities in Pakistan contain
higher efficiency level than others. In contrast, average efficiency score of
large universities are lowers those medium and small universities. In the group
of large universities, almost all universities are working in public sector,
while medium and small universities are mix of public and private sector. This
suggests that higher education commission of Pakistan should take necessary
actions to improve the quality of public universities in Pakistan.

Conclusion and Recommendations

On the
basis of our above findings the major problems in the path of achieving
efficiency and equity in higher education (public and private sector) are:

Lack of new centers of
advanced studies, research and extension in Public Sector University.
Poor infrastructure
condition of public sector universities.
A lot of discrepancies
exist in education of public and private sector.
Teaching, learning and
research process in public sector universities are not in line with
international standard.
There is no
accountability of public sector teachers and no such evaluation of
teachers took place. They are not willing to show accountability towards
providing regular academics.

Reforms
in education are necessary by bringing different and new effective educational
policies in action. Unfortunately, the reforms has been made but not
implemented according to the fine words of policies. Most important point is
allocation towards higher education is inadequate. As a result, it seems
clearly that particularly higher education gives the look of an orphan child.

In
order to achieve efficiency and equity in private and public sector is that
government must assist private sector either in their capital cost or by giving
relaxation in taxes, also giving teachers a prominent status in the society,
but at the same time subjecting the teachers of public university to
accountability based performance and evaluation, improved teaching materials and
improved methods of training may also helpful and government must also provide
necessary incentives to the teachers.