Abstract alarming stage where our environment is experiencing an

Abstract – Garbage is a Global Problem that
affects all Human Beings. A study from Grow NYC shows that 80% of the

World’s solid waste is produced in the United States of
America. Also 70% of its trash is used once and 45% is buried or burnt, such
waste is paper, plastic etc. With rapid urbanization, the country is facing
massive waste management
challenge.Solid waste management (SWM) is one among the basic services provided
by municipal authorities to keep Urban centers clean. However, all municipal
authorities deposit waste at a dump yard within or outside the city haphazardly.
Experts believe that India is following a flawed system of waste disposal and management.

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The key to manage efficiently is to ensure proper segregation
of waste at source and to ensure that the waste goes through different streams
of recycling and resource recovery. The work proposed, Waste Management System
(WMS) which is inexpensive, simple to use solution for a segregation system at
households, so that it can be sent directly for processing. This system is
designed to sort the refuse in to metallic, glass, wood, paper waste. The WMS
employs the principle of gravity separator to distinguish the waste according
to their weights.

 

Keywords- waste; segregation; urbanization

 

I.                
MOTIVATION

One
such problem that has caught people’s attention in the current scenario is the
ever increasing waste and our inability to deal with it. With the ever growing
human population and increasing living standard of people.  Waste matter is generated from industrial and
domestic activities, which is dumped into our surroundings. Cities are now
struggling with the problems of high build up of waste and its impact on our
immediate and global environment. As a result, environmental pollution has come
to an alarming stage where our environment is experiencing an irreparable damage.
Solid and liquid wastes as well as gas particles released from the industries;
run off pesticides and fertilizers from the agricultural practices as well as
household sewage from urban regions have come to a point beyond disposal. The
most important reason for segregation of waste is to recycle the waste after
segregation.

Study shows
that the segregation of waste using gravity separator can be implemented.
Segregation of all type of waste using the principle of gravity separator which
will segregate weights according to their weights.

 

 

 

II.              
INTRODUCTION

Throughout history, most
amount of the waste generated by Humans was considerably negligible, low
population density being the main reason. Also, the natural resources were not
much exploited at that time. The waste produced during these times were Ashes,
Human Biodegradable Waste etc and were released back into the ground locally
with minimum environmental impact. Tools that were made out of metal or wood
were reused and were passed on to the next generations as it is. In the Modern
era, during the start of industrialization, the buildup of waste in the cities
caused a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitisation.

 

The Serious problem that
follows is the escalating amount of waste generated each minute by an
individual. Every city is grappling with the menace of ever increasing waste.An
outstanding 0.1 million tons of waste is generated each day in our
country.Sadly only 5% of this colossal amount of waste is recycled. Dumping of
waste on outskirts of cities has created over flowing landfills which are not
only impossible to reclaim because of the haphazard manner of dumping but also
has serious environmental implications. One solution for this problem could be
segregation of the waste at the disposal level itself.

 

Rag pickers in India have an
important role in the recycling of urban solid waste. Rag pickers have higher
morbidity due to infections of skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal tract and
multi-system allergic disorders, in addition to a high prevalence of bites of
rodents, dogs and other vermin. Dependency on the rag-pickers can be diminished
if segregation of waste takes place.

We have thus come up with an
Waste Management System which categorizes the waste as wet, dry- & further
segregation of dry waste. PLC forms the heart of the system. Inductive
proximity sensor is used to detect if the waste is a metal. A hopper is used in
which the waste is inserted.The hopper consists of crusher which will crush all
the waste into a finite size. After this all the waste are passed to a conveyor
belt which is rotating at a speed of 1000 rpm.Using the principle of gravity
separator all type of waste will get segregate automatically according to their
weights. We have thus proposed this project to give back to our nation, making
our India a ‘SwachhBharath’.

 

 

I-a. LITERATURE SURVEY

 

The paper Municipal Solid
Waste Collection Problems, presented by Jonas Van Ackere describes an Idea
about management of solid waste in a proper
manner.

The paper reviews the
literature on Municipal Solid Waste management Problems.

The selected manuscript
contains four main types of waste, garbage, containers, hazardous materials and
recyclables, each of them having specific requirements.

the manuscripts are categorized
based on their scope, resulting in three different classes. A first class of
papers addresses facility problems, where decisions have to be made concerning the expansion of current
disposal facilities or the location of new facilities. The second class deals
with allocating collection vehicles to disposal facilities. The last and most
important class of papers addresses the collection routing problem.

While emphasizing the
durability of waste, it is important to think about running the waste cycle
efficiently too. Waste management is more than just collecting waste.The
collection, transport, processing, recycling, disposal and monitoring of waste
materials takes part in this. Numerous factors, such as environmental,
economic, technical, legislation, institutional and political issues, have to
be taken into consideration.

Allocation of trucks to
certain disposal facilities, and development of efficient routes need to be
considered. Collection is the most important and costly aspect of the cycle because
of the labour intensity of the work and the massive use of trucks in the
collection process. According to Clark and Gillean, the collection activity
accounts for approximately 80

% of all costs associated
with waste disposal. Consequently, this paper gives a review of the available
literature on waste management problems with a special focus on the collection
of municipal solid waste. Literature about facility location and truck
allocation are included as well to point the reader to the importance of these
issues.

In the past, solid waste
collection was carried out without analyzing demand and the construction of the
routes was left over to the drivers. Cities, however, continue to expand.

Because of this ongoing
urbanization, the importance of an efficient collection system only increases.
Optimally, there should be a method that tries to maximize the general
acceptance of a solution. However, as this is hard to realize, different
methods have been developed that focus on route length, costs, number of
collection vehicles, etc.

The purpose of this paper is
to guide the reader through the available literature on waste management
problems. The different classifications in this review make it possible to
select the papers of interest.

With the help of this we can only manage and collect waste and
not segregate it.

So if we are
able to develop the system which can overcome all of the mentioned drawbacks,
then it would help us to segregate the different kind of materials according to
their densities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III.    
PROJECT WORK

 

 

SOFTWARE USED

·     Ladder Programmig

HARDWARE
USED

·    DeltaPLCDVP14SSR

·    DC Motors

 

 

 

IV.     
WORKING

Here in this case, solution is the “Waste Management System”, which is meant to segregate dry
waste and use them for recycling.

The design we propose will
consist of a shredder and then the conveyor belt which will be inclined at a 35
degrees angle.The type of segregation used is gravitational segregation.The
conveyor belt will be moved with the help of Dc Motors
rotating at 1000 rotations per minute.

The shredded wastes will
fall on the running conveyor belt and with respect to their corresponding weights, will fall at different distances. These separated
materials will further get compressed.

 

 

 

 

 

                V.    METHODOLOGY

Our System works on the Principle of Gravitation,and this is the main
reason for the system to be Inclined.

We have used Wood to make the base and the supporters.This is because it
is light, cheap and firm than other materials available.

The Wooden frame is Inclined at an angle of 35 degrees with the
Base.There is a Conveyor belt running continuously at constant speed within the
frame.

The materials are crushed in a shredder. Shredder consists of two motors
running in opposite direction simultaneously.the motors are of 12V 300 RPM.
These Motors are high torque motors and hence help better in crushing the
materials. The motors are connected to rollers. Rollers are rotating part
inside shredder which will crush the material. Once the material is crushed it
falls on the conveyor. The conveyor moving at a specific speed will provide
momentum to the waste. This momentum will help in segregating the materials.
Materials with different density will have different momentum and will fall at
a different place ahead of the conveyor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
2. Flowchart of WMS

 

ADVANTAGES

·        
We get compressed wastes at the end.

·        
The space required  for 
this storage is comparatively
More Robust.

 

       DISADVANTAGES

·        
The maintenance cost of the system
is very 
high.

·        
The densities of different
materials may be the same, thus may cause a problem during segregation.

 

 

 

   VI.  
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

The purpose of this project
is to make sure that the waste disposed in the bin are further segregated. This
segregation will take place using our system, Waste Management System (WMS).
The waste will get segregated into three different materials like Wood, Plastic
and Metal.

 

 

 

           VII.   CONCLUSION

The segregated waste will be
categorized into Wood, Paper and Metal.

As the system is Automated,
so it is less time consuming and thus produces more effective results. We get
compressed wastes at the end thus the space required for their storage is
comparatively less. The Controller that we are going to use is PLC which is
more Robust and it is easier to Interface. They can also withstand heavy loads
in comparison with other controllers