1. Why is cross cultural communication (CCC) a business

1.      Why
is cross cultural communication (CCC) a business issue?

the business world move toward becoming globalization, organizations basically
require the multifaceted correspondence. It assumes an imperative part between
the workers and keeping up the representative relations, in taking care of the
worldwide clients etc. In this way, organizations need to address the
distinctive sort of gathering classes alongside their way of life and the
powerful correspondence will be through the precise comprehension of diverse
correspondence and how the organization utilize it. Be that as it may, here and
there the CCC will be a business issue to an organization. That is the point at
which an organization is having labourers from various social foundations or
when an organization needs to speak with various nations. Around then the
organization needs to have a careful understanding about the other culture. For
instance, assume that an organization needs to state “Yes” to a
business offer. Assume the other party is an Australian organization and when
your kin had a gesture of the head in Australia it imply as a ‘yes’, in England
it shows that the individual who gesture his head has seen unmistakably.
However, in the event that the other party is an Albanian, at that point and
all over sign of the head shows a “No”. Along these lines, if the
organization don’t have the confused idea about the social communication, at
that point the organization needs to face to a business issue, as they don’t understand
culturally diverse communication. This is the main reason why cross cultural
communication is a business issue.

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2.      Why
is CCC an ethics issue? How could an understanding of ethics assist a
professional to communicate effectively with people from other cultures?

idea that profound quality varies in various societies and it isn’t the
privilege of a guest or visitor in a nation to force his or her own particular
esteems on the host is known as social relativism. Such contentions prompts a
place of good lack of bias. In the event that one culture may not remark upon
another’s practices then it might be contended that there are no shred moral
esteems (Moral issues in business, pg. 265). That is when the cross cultural
communication becomes an ethical issue.

whatever point there is an understanding about the morals help with convincing
correspondence, it is simpler to speak with the general population from various
societies. There might be some unwritten decides about social chain of command
that we are not used to. For instance, the organization that we are managing
will be from a culture that the two men and ladies are similarly anticipated
that would be speak with. However, now and again if the organization has a
culture of where men talks more than ladies, at that point we need to convey in
like manner. If not there can be a moral issue emerging in our organization
when speaking with them. In this way, the social morals should to be understand
and should to be discuss viably with individuals from different societies.

3.      What
do you think the author meant by “Recent economic challenges further highlight
the need for the organizations to develop the internal communication capacity necessary
to control and monitor external threats”?

author meant by the above statement is that when there is an economic
challenge, it is vital to have an internal communication capacity to control
and monitor external threats. To explain the above statement, we can take the
Global financial crisis as the recent economic challenge. When the global
financial crisis had took place in the world economy, it has affected on many
economies. This economic downturn is basically because of fraud and lack of
transparency in the financial sector of the businesses which result for a loss
of trust in business. Therefore, the companies need to revamp their corporate
governance practises and ensure that they are operating accountably and transparently.
In this kind of situation, if the company is having more accurate and
transparency in the financial sector then they will survive in this kind of
crisis situation. Suppose company has published accurate financial statements
of the company and it indicates the transparency of the company to the
stakeholders. If there is any doubt about the financial handling of the
company, then the stakeholders have the right to ask and clarify it. That is
one way of developing effective internal communication and if the company has
done something like that, then whenever there is an external threat, company
know how to face that threat. All the employers, stakeholders of the company
can involve in making decisions with the management, because as all the details
are clear and transparent to everybody. Therefore, this is what the author
meant by “Recent economic challenges further highlight the need for the
organizations to develop the internal communication capacity necessary to
control and monitor external threats”.

4.      Explain
why “Cultural proficiency doesn’t mean memorizing every cultural nuance of
every market; it’s knowing when to listen, when to ask for help and
when-finally-to speak”.

are many cultural differences in businesses. Sometimes as a company we have to
get to know when to speak, when to listen and when to ask for help because,
different cultures capture it in a different way where, the company had to
identify them properly. As common, the company do not need to memorize all the
cultural differences, instead, they have to work and behave accordingly. For
example, if we take valuing of time, Germans are really conscious on time
rather than the African and South American countries. They are more punctual
than the other countries. If, the company is having a meeting with a German
company, then they have to know that they are punctual and need to be on time.
As an example, we can look the difference in between China and western
countries. With the impact of Confucianism, Chinese culture enormously values
aggregate agreement. In like manner, the Chinese style of correspondence
intends to save amicability. Solid settings of feeling, particularly negative
emotions, are viewed as upsetting the adjust. Therefore, the Chinese have a
tendency to depend on indirect remarks and the bigger setting for imparting a
message. When all is said in done, they try to demonstrate regard toward
everybody who holds a similar economic wellbeing in business culture, and they
have a tendency to talk as far as “we” instead of “I,”
mirroring their principal estimation of the gathering as their essential social

addition, in light of the fact that the Chinese don’t need any person to lose
“challenge” according to others, they won’t utterly fault or get out
someone else for having deliberated a mistake. Or maybe, the gathering manages
the issue in a nonthreatening and challenge in a careful way. Westerners must
understand that face is an unremarkable idea, and it’s workable for individuals
to lose look with different degrees of seriousness. It may appear glaringly
evident that individuals could lose confront in the event that they neglected
to win a significant arrangement, however they can likewise lose confront on
the off chance that they are humiliated or repudiated about even a minor issue
before others. Loss of face can make genuine harm connections and business
openings. Given this opinion, the Chinese are additionally worried about
sparing Westerners’ face, regardless of whether Westerners are themselves
concerned. In helping Westerners look after face, at that point, the Chinese
are keeping open the likelihood of working together by building a relationship
in view of common regard and correspondence. Therefore, by identifying such
things with the company that we are trade with, we have to know when to listen,
when to ask for help and when-finally-to speak without memorizing every
cultural nuance of every market.


5.      The
author argues that “Focus should be placed on using individual differences”.
Why do you think this approach might be more effective than ‘promoting cultural

to the author, the article indicates that the focus should be based on the
individual differences rather than promoting cultural adoption. If we consider
a cultural adaption, that is the company is adapting solely to that culture
without any difference. But, if that happens there might be misunderstandings
of that adopting culture. For example, if the take the Mc Donald’s franchising
failure in Japan, the main reason for that was Mc Donald try to adapt their
culture to the Japanese culture. At the point when the main establishment
opened in Japan, the menu comprised for the most part of things like those in
the Assembled States. In push to expand deals, McDonald’s eateries tried
different things with various sustenance things, for example, Chinese browned
rice, curried rice with chicken, and seared egg burgers. Customer taste was by
all account not the only test McDonald’s needed to manage in Japan.
Commensality, eating together at one table, is key to the Japanese. A standout
amongst the most imperative parts of nourishment is uniting individuals and
making a feeling of group. Rice, which is conveyed to the table in a typical
compartment and served to everybody at the table, is the embodiment of a
sustenance that bonds families and makes social connections. McDonald’s burgers,
on the other hand, are intended to be eaten independently and can’t be shared.
The first establishment in Ginza, Japan had neither tables nor seats; there
were counters in which clients were relied upon to eat their meals in a hurry. If
the company focused on the individual differences first, then for Mc Donald’s
the franchising in Japan at the first will not be a failure.

if the company is focusing on individual differences, they will work in teams
around the world with having various means of communication. When those
individuals will expose themselves into the different cultures, they will share
experiences on more similar occupations. That will help the individual to
consider the cross – cultural similarities. When they know that, as a company
it is easy to enhance the practises of employees accordingly.  Therefore, this approach might be more
effective than promoting cultural adaption.

6.      Explain
why “Companies that are successful in communicating cross-culturally have a
competitive advantage” (Genevieve, 2007).

to Genevieve, 2007, companies that are successful in communicating
cross-culturally have a competitive advantage. When considering this statement,
we can indicate that when a company is having a successful cross – cultural
communication training, they can gain a competitive advantage. Multinational
associations are investigating openings around the globe, exhibiting
affectability towards social contrasts keeping in mind the end goal to pick up
from the expansion and development of universal venture. Late investigations
demonstrate that while a few partnerships contend effectively in the worldwide
commercial center, others have neglected to support their upper hand on account
of social dominion or deficient cultural assimilation of their administrators
on global task. Corporate experts contended that the way to worldwide business
achievement relies upon successful culturally diverse manners and worldwide
workforce decent variety administration. Other important examinations emphasized
that worldwide directors should to be prepared in relational relationship and
gathering correspondence capability, and ought to be outfitted with culturally
diverse arrangement abilities that can keep up worldwide aggressiveness.
Progressively, companies perceive the benefit of planning worldwide chiefs,
since business targets of are not been accomplished essentially as a result of
lacks in multifaceted manners. By considering the above factors, we can
conclude that companies that are successful in communicating cross-culturally
have a competitive advantage.

7.      Compare
and contrast the communication styles from your home country and Australia. How
do they differ? Are there similarities?

of the countries in the world have their own unique culture and that has made
different aspects of each country. Based on the cultural profile, the
communication styles from country to country my differ each other. When compare
and contrast the communication styles from my home country Sri Lanka and
Australia, there are far more differences that can take into consideration
rather than similarities. As my home country is an Asian country, the culture
there is more different from Australia.

are having a direct communication style where my country has an indirect communication
style. Directness is valued in Australia and inability to state what you mean
and mean what you say can be mixed up for hesitance and even affectation. Regarding
non-verbal communication, Australians do utilize hand motions when talking, and
individual space is esteemed. In a workplace, it is worthy and anticipated that
would shake hands on arrival and in a social setting among loved ones, Aussies
tend to kiss on the cheek or hug to say hello and goodbye. In Sri Lanka, Sri
Lankans have a polite, roundabout discourse style. This implies they want to
intimate things instead of be unequivocal in their importance. To inquiries and
solicitations that require a yes or no answer, a Sri Lankan’s distraction with
concealing any hint of failure confront and being obliging can lead them to
reply ‘yes’ – whether they mean this or not. For a Sri Lankan, a level ‘no’ may
demonstrate that you wish to end the relationship and can prompt the loss of
face for the other individual.

is one of the not very many societies in which humor is all unavoidable in
business situations. Not exclusively is humor worthy in all circumstances, it is
normal in all situations. Keep in mind an Australian senior supervisor since he
or she utilizes humor at what you may feel to be a wrong time. But in Sri Lanka,
this is differ. Humor is not considered as a good intention between a business situations.
If that happens in between a conversation, it considered to be as not
respecting to the speaker.

names are always utilized as a part of all business circumstances in Australia.
It would be extremely irregular to call a business contact by their surname.
Thus, educational titles have generally little impact in business circumstances.
Standards of communication are to some degree managed by the watched social instruction
that supports Sri Lankan culture. Regard for and respect to expert figures in
and outside the house is predominant in different courses, for example, being
delicate in regards to how they react to, or deny, different solicitations in
light of the individual’s status.

Sri Lanka, people in professional gatherings would keep the same distance. This
separation bit by bit decreases once individuals become more acquainted with
each other better. They will not touching anybody among discussions unless the
two individuals definitely know each other well. Always Sri Lankans try to be
straightforward in presenting the ideas for a business project. This will help to
create a powerful joint effort and organizations as the venture advances. In an
Australian firm, people friendly handshake as a standard welcome. Ladies may hug
and kiss when welcoming each other. Being conscious of individual space when
conversing with individuals is the normal standard. Lining is an important

mentioned in the above, they are some different aspects of communication styles
in my home country and Australia.

8.      Give
an example of how one of the differences that you have identified might lead to
misunderstanding. How could this have negative effect on the business?

the above identified differences, to explain this question, I take the direct
communication of Australians and indirect communication of Sri Lankan’s. Suppose,
a Sri Lankan company is starting a new business affiliation with an Australian
company. We’ll take the business affiliation as, an Australian company has an acquisition
of a Sri Lankan company. So now, the Australians has arrived to Sri Lanka to
come to an agreement. The agreement will be signed after a visit. At the time
of the visit, suppose that there is a meeting with the guests. After discussing
things in that meeting, Australians straightforwardly saying that they like to the
acquisition. But, as Sri Lankan’s are not directly communicating, they will
look at the faces of each other. They cannot come to a conclusion directly at
that moment. If, a situation like this happens, then it will be a huge impact
towards the business. The company will loss in their financials, also the
company will be more profitable than previous if they will go for the
acquisition with Australia. The modern technology that will the installed in
the business process has ceased with that. The new job opportunities for people
has ceased. Further, the Sri Lankan company will be able to increase the market
share to take the competitive advantage but, with a simple expression they have
failed to capture everything. Therefore, in this kind of situation, the communication
differences and misunderstandings of people will heavily impact towards the
business process.

9.      Why
might “The obsession to overemphasize the differences between different
cultures may result in stereotypes being conceived and such perceived notions
may prove to be a hindrance in communicating with people?

from various nations dependably have stereotypes about each other. It is
totally normal as each culture dependably contains privileged insights. It is
regularly secured with riddle, incredible stories and subjective mentalities.
Yet, some of existing stereotypes are right and others are incorrect. Stereotypes
can keep us from adapting a few perspectives about the nation and understanding
an alternate culture in a more suitable manner.

are called particular, if just an individual uses them or they are social or
group in the event that they are broadly shared by a gathering of individuals. In
an intercultural defining, one of the objectives of the member is becoming more
acquainted with the behaviours and identity of the correspondence accomplice.
In this procedure, we apply both confirmation and our current convictions about
the individuals from that social gathering. These are social generalizations. Stereotypes
can concern one’s own gathering or that of the other. When we walk in the city,
for example, just to get to a specific address, we will most likely be unable
to tell what number of hairstyling parlours we go amid our trip. In any case, on
the off chance that we walk on a similar road to discover one, our consideration
is tuned to see the barbershops’ signs hanging over the walkers. Cultural stereotypes
work similarly: they concentrate on specific highlights, enhance them as we
would see it, and offer translations of our perceptions. As indicated by a few
researches, individuals tend to support speculations in light of
generalizations notwithstanding when they have motivation to associate the
legitimacy with the generalization (Johnston and Macrae 1994). Stereotypes are
regularly impervious to change. As above there are many kind of different stereotypes
where in some situations when the people overthink, that will lead to an interruption
of the communication in between the people. Above mentioned are some situations
that the people might have obsession to overemphasize the differences between
different cultures which may result in stereotypes being conceived and such
perceived notions may prove to be a hindrance in communicating with people

10.  Give
examples of how Australians stereotype people from your country, and how people
from your country stereotype Australians. Do you think these stereotypes are

the globe, individuals are raised not to stereotype others. By and by, they
regularly characterize their own social personality by stereotyping themselves.
Not exclusively do the generalizations give the behavioural model that people
try to imitate, they likewise give a feeling of shared characteristic that
influences individuals to feel that they are a piece of a group. In Australia,
there are a few people who can in like manner value the advantages of a social
personality and who have accordingly made generalizations to attest that
character. One such Australian is Peter Cosgrove, the Australian Senator
General. According to Cosgrove, “Without doubt the best quality we observe
across the entire Australian community is a natural willingness to pitch in and
have a go, to help others. We see it of course whenever there is an emergency
or a worthy cause. We see it in every community volunteer organization from the
lifesavers to the bushfire brigades through to the thousands of youth and
mature age sporting clubs and those great international service organizations
like Rotary and many others. We see it in our professional bodies such as the
police, fire and ambulance services and of course in the defence force. It is a
generosity of spirit and a selflessness that is perhaps our most precious
heritage to hand on to younger and newer Australians – a nation of people who
care for and look out for each other”. Social Character Hypothesis (Tajfel and
Turner 1979) recommends that in spite of the fact that people fit in with
generalizations, it is typically just for a brief span. Once the requirement
for a social personality passes, the people show their remarkable character
attributes afresh. For instance, an Australian may get alcoholic on ANZAC Day
and esteem mateship on Australia Day in light of the fact that such practices
are characteristically connected with the days. On all different days, the
Australian may cease from commending mateship and may likewise maintain a
strategic distance from liquor. In like manner, Australians may demonstrate
extraordinary sympathy for others after a bushfire in light of the fact that
such conduct is stereotyped Australian conduct. On different days, the
Australian winds up noticeably self-intrigued once more.

to the above factors I don’t think that stereotypes are accurate. That will
happen due to a reason and that will be in a particular period. So with that time
frame the people will have these stereotype situations. According to myself, as
stereotype is situational, still the culture would have an impact for that. That
is suppose that one kind of behaviour of a person can be based on their culture.
But, according to the situation the behaviour can be differ. Therefore, I think
stereotype is not accurate.